Bio Exam 2 flash cards.txt

  1. What is the Fluid mosaic model?
    • The cell membrane, mad up of phospholipids
    • Hydrophyllic and hydrophobic
    • Fluid movement
  2. What is Entropy?
    a measure of disorder
  3. What is simple diffusion?
    • Passive movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.
    • Passive process
  4. What is a hypertonic environment?
    One that has a higher concentration of osmotically active particles that is present inside the cell.
  5. What is an Isotonic environment?
    Concentration of osmotically active particles equal on both sides of the membrane
  6. What is a Hypotonic Environment?
    One that has lower concentration of osmotically active particles than is present inside the cell.
  7. What are Aquaphorins?
    The piping system of the cell
  8. What is Facilitated diffusion?
    • Passive movement of molecules from region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration through membrane channels
    • Channels are often selective
  9. What is Active Transport?
    The active movement of molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of higher concentration.
  10. What is the Na-K ATPase?
    • Pumps 3 Na + ions out of the cell
    • Pumps 2 K+ ions into the cell
    • Causes the inside of the cell to become - charged
    • Breaks down ATP to make ion movement possible
  11. What are the different ways particles move across the membranes?
    • Phagocytosis
    • Pinocytosis
    • Receptor mediated Endocytosis
  12. What is Phagocytosis?
    "food" or particle absorption or "eating"
  13. What is Pinocytosis?
    • Absorption of fluid
    • Pulls fluid in
  14. What is Receptor mediated Endocytosis?
    Receptors located on the surface of cells. They bond with other molecules allowing the molecule to pass the cel membrane
  15. What is an Exothermic reaction?
    Reactants have more energy than the products
  16. What is an Endothermic reactions?
    Reactants have less energy than the products
  17. What are enzymes?
    Lower activation energy this speeding cellular reactions
  18. What is a Coenzyme?
    Organic molecule that associate with enzymes and allow them to catalyze reactions
  19. What are Cofactors?
    Inorganic groups that associate with enzymes and allow them to catalyze reactions. They are often metal atoms
  20. What are competitive and non-Competitive Inhibitors?
    • Competitive:
    • Compete with the substrate for the same active site. Inhibit enzyme activity.
    • Non-Competitive:
    • Bind to alternate site and inhibit enzyme activity
  21. What are the two types of Oxidation-reduction reactions?
    • NAD+
    • NADH
  22. What are the Features of Glycolysis?
    • Final products of 2 Pyruvic acids
    • Located in the Cytoplasm
    • Energy yield 2 ATP's, 2 NADH and H+
    • Does not require any O2
  23. What is the fate of Pyruvic Acids in the absence of free oxygen?
    • Lactic acid Fermentation
    • Alcohol fermentation
  24. What are the essential functions of the Fermentation reaction?
    • To regenerate oxidized NAD needed for step 6 of glycolysis
    • If glycolysis were to stop at step 6 the ATP generating system (7 and 10) would not take place.
  25. What is the Kreb cycle?
    • Happens in the mitochondria
    • Generates 4 ATP
  26. What are the lenses of the Compound Light Microscope?
    • Ocular
    • Objective
    • Condenser
  27. What is the Nucleus?
    • Location of genetic material
    • Surrounded by double membrane with pored that regulate exit and entry
    • Genetic material in form of chromatin in non dividing cells
    • Contains DNA
  28. What is the flow of genetic information?
    • DNA remains within the nucleus then genes are copied into mRNA with in the nucleus.
    • mRNA moved to nucleus where it attaches to ribosomes and provides the information needed to make proteins
    • The mRNA travel into the Ribosomes (Cytoplasm via nuclear pore) where protein is synthesized.
    • The ribosome attached to the ER wall and the protein is released into the ER where a carb is attached.
    • After traveling through the ER the protein is taken to the Gogli where the carb is changed.
    • After Gogli the protein is released to travel to its end location, cytoplasmic, membrane, secreted
  29. What is the Rough ER?
    Ribosomes attached to ER membrane - site of synthesis of membrane - bound and secreted proteins
  30. What is smooth ER?
    Lipid synthesis and drug detoxification
  31. What are the different types of proteins transported within the cell?
    • Cytoplasmic
    • Membrane
    • Receptors
    • secreted
    • Exported
  32. What happens within the rough ER?
    Carb (sugar) attaches
  33. What is the SRP?
    • Signal recognition particule (signal sequence)
    • Found in the first 20aa’s of a protein
    • Tells the protein where to go
  34. What are some WBC?
    • Neutrophils
    • Macrophages
  35. What is phagocytosis?
    Eat or absorb bacteria
  36. What are Lysosomes?
    • Involved in intracellular digestion
    • Absorbs food and old and damaged organelles
  37. What is a Vacuole?
    • Absorb water (increase cell size)
    • May store chemicals, wastes, pigments, toxins for defense.
  38. What are the mitochondria?
    • Site of cellular respiration (ATP synthesis)
    • Double membrane (2 chambers)
    • Inner (matrix)
    • Intermembrane space
    • Contains a small number of genes
  39. What are the Chloroplasts?
    • Site of light reactions of photosynthesis (thylakoids)
    • Contains small number of genes (100)
  40. What is Endosynbiotic hypothesis?
    • When one cell lives another cell and they both derive some benefit from the relationship
    • Cell living within a cell
    • Organelles
  41. What is the Cytoskeleton?
    • Provides structural support
    • Involved in cell movement
    • Involves in maintaining the shape of the cell (nerve cell)
    • Made up of microfilaments
  42. What are Microfilaments?
    • Solid rods composed of actin, involved in movement and in allowing cells to change shape.
    • Classified by the diameter
  43. What are the different Microfilaments?
    • Subunit (thinest)
    • Fibrous subunit
    • Tubulin subunit (thickest)
    • What are Cilia?
    • Short numerous, allows movement
    • Protists and cells of the respiratory tract
  44. What are Flagella?
    • Longer, less numerous (sperm)
    • Made up of a cytoskeleton
  45. How do Microtubules bend?
    Dynein arms
  46. What are Dynein arms?
    Little arms between the Microtubules
  47. What are the different connections between cells?
    • Tight Junctions
    • Anchoring junctions
    • Communicating junctions
  48. What are the tight junctions?
    • Bind cells together in leakproof sheets
    • Found in the lining of the GI tract
    • Prevents between cells
  49. What are the Anchoring junctions?
    • Join cells to adjacent cells or to extracellular matrix, still allow passage of materials
    • Ways to join adjacent cells together
    • Found in the heart
  50. What are the Communicating junctions?
    Allow water and other small molecules to pass between adjacent cells.
  51. What is the layout of the phosphate groups?
    • Fluid mosaic model (lipid bilayer with embedded membrane proteins
    • Negatively charged (hydrophyllic) toward the inside next to eachother
    • Uncharged (Hydrophobic)
  52. What is Entropy?
    Molecules tend to move from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they are in low concentration
  53. Covers cells
    • membranes and cell interactions
    • cellular respiration
  54. What is Glycolysis?
    • The first step in cell respiration
    • Glycolysis breaks down glucose and makes Pyruvate with the production of 2 ATP
  55. What is NAD?
    • Plays a role in the transfer of elections
    • NAD acts as a reducing agent
    • NADH (high energy for of NAD) contributes to oxidation in cell processes like glycolysis to help with oxidation of glucose
  56. What is NADH?
    • The high energy for of NAD
    • After the Glucose molecule has given NAD 2 electrons for transport it becomes NADH
  57. What happens in the first step of glycolysis?
    The enzyme Hexokinase phospharylates adds a phosphate group to the glucose in the cells cytoplasm. IN the process, a phosphate group ATP is transferred to the glucose producing glucose 6 phosphate.
  58. What happens in the second step of Glycolysis?
    The enzyme Phosphoglucoisomerase converts glucose 6 phosphate into its isomer fructose 6-phosophate.
  59. What happens in step 3 of Glycolysis?
    The enzyme phosphofructokinase uses another ATP molecule to transfer a phosphate group to fructose 6 - phosphate to form fructose 1, 6 biphosphate.
  60. What happens in step 4 of Glycolysis?
    The enzyme aldolase splits fructose 1, 6 biphosphate into two sugars that are isomers of each other. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde phosphate.
  61. What happens in step 5 of Glycolysis?
    The enzyme trios phosphate isomerase rapidly inter-converts the molecules dihydroxyacetine phosphate and glyceraldeyde phosphate. Glyceraldehyde phosphate is removed as soon as it is formed to be used in the next step of glycolysis
  62. What happens in step 6 of glycolysis?
    The Enzyme trios phosphate dehydrogenase serves two functions in this step. Fist the enzyme transfers a H- from glyceraldehyde phosphate to the oxidizing agent NAD to form NADH. Next Triose adds a phosphate from the cytosol ti the oxidized glyceralehyde phosphate to from 1, 3 0 biphosphoglycerate. This occurs for both molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate products in step 5.
  63. What happens in step seven on Glycolysis?
    The enzyme Phosphoglycerokinase transfers a P from 1. 3-biphosphoglycerate to a molecule of ADP to form ATP. This happens for each to 1, biphosphoglycerate. The process yields two 3-phophoglycerate molecules and two ATP molecules
  64. What happens in step eight of Glycolysis?
    The enzyme phosphoglyceromutase relocares the P from 3 - Phophoglycerate from the third carbon to the second carbon to form 2 - phosphoglycerate.
  65. What happens in step nine of Glycolysis?
    The enzyme enolase removes a molecule of water from 2-phosphoglycerate to form phosphoenopyruvic acid (PEP). This happens for each molecule of 2-phophoglycerate.
  66. What happens in step ten of Glycolysis?
    The enzyme Pyruvate kinase transfers a P from PEP and ADP to form pyretic acid and ATP. This happens for each molecule of PEP. This reaction yields 2 molecules of pryuvic acid and 2 ATP molecules.
  67. What is the end product of Glycolysis?
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 H20
    • 3 Molecules of pyruvic acid
  68. Where does the Kreb cycle occur?
    In the Mitochondrion of the cell
  69. What happens to the Pyruvic acid prior to interring the Kreb cycle?
    The pyretic acid are altered. Ech three carbon pyretic acid molecule undergoes conversion to acetyl-CoA. During the process, the pyruvic acid molecule is broken down by an enzyme, one canon atom is released in the form of carbon dioxide, and the remaining two carbons are combined with coenzyme A. This combination forms Acetyl-CoA. In the process, electrons and a hydrogen ion are transferred to NAD to for high energy NADH.
  70. How does Acetyl-CoA inter the Kreb cycle?
    Acetyl-CoA now enters the Kreb cycle after being formed from pyruvate and Coenzyme A. Affter Acetyl-CoA inters the Kreb cycle by combining with a four - carbon acid called oxaloacetic acid.
  71. What is Acetyl-CoA?
    The product after Pyruvic acid is broken down by coenzyme A to inter the Kreb Cycle
  72. What is the second step of the Kreb Cylce?
    After Acetyl-CoA combines with oxaloacetic acid it forms a six carbon sugar called citric acid.
  73. What is citric acid?
    The combination of Acetyl-CoA and Oxaloacetic acid, forming a six carbon acid called citric acid.
  74. What is step 3 of the Kreb Cycle?
    • Citric acid under goes a series of enzyme-catalyzed conversions.
    • Throughout these conversions many high-energy elections are released to NAD.
    • The NAD molecule also a quires a hydrogen ion and becomes NADH.
    • In one of the conversions FAD serves as the electron acceptor, and it a quires two hydrogen ion to become FADH2.
    • Through the conversions enough energy is released to synthesize a molecule of ATP
    • Due to two Pyruvic acids interring the cycle originally, this process happens twice.
  75. What happens in step 4 of the Kreb cycle?
    The two carbon atoms of the Acetyl-CoA are released, and each forms a carbon dioxide molecule. Thus for each Acetyl-CoA entering the cycle, two Co2 molecules are formed. Each cycle two Acetyl - CoA enter the Kreb cycle producing 4 CO2 molecules. When adding these four to the 2 already produced off the breakdown of pyruvic acid, we get 6 CO2 Molecules. These 6 CO2 molecules are given off as waist, they represent the 6 Carbons to the 6 Carbon sugar originally.
  76. What is the total the Kreb cycle produces?
    • 2 ATP
    • 10 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
    • Both the NADH and the FADH2 will be used in the electron transport chain.
  77. How many turns does the Kreb cycle take?
  78. Why does the Kreb cycle take to turns?
    Once for each pyruvate that was made at the end of glycolysis
  79. How many ATPs does Glycolysis produce?
    • 2 ATP's
    • 2 reduced NAD's x 2 = 4 ATP
  80. How many ATP's are produced when pyruvate is converted to Acetyl CoA?
    6 ATP's
  81. How many ATP's are produced in the Kreb cycle
    • 2 ATP's
    • 6 reduced NAD's x 3 = 18 ATP's
    • 2 reduced FAD's x 2 = 4 ATP's
  82. What is the total amount of ATP's produced with the Energy cycle, glycolysis, Kreb and pyruvate reduction.
    36-38 ATP's
  83. What is the final electron acceptor at the end of the ETC?
  84. What is the Sodium potassium ATPase
    • Membrane protein complex
    • Pumps sodium out of the cell while it pumps potassium in active transport.
    • Goes from an area of low concentration to high
    • pumps 3 Na+ out of the cell and 2 K+ into the cell with the help of ATP
  85. What are the cell Organelles?
    • Nucleus (location of DNA)
    • Nucleolus (genes for ribosomes)
    • Ribosomes (involved in protein synthesis, composed of rRNA and protons)
    • Mitochondria
    • Lysosomes
    • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    • The Golgi apparatus
    • Plasma membrane (fluid mosaic model)
  86. What is the Fluid mosaic model?
    Phospholipid bilayer with embedded protein and cholesterol molecules. Many of the molecules are free to diffuse within the membrane. Carbohydrate molecules are attached to the outside surface.
  87. What is simple diffusion?
    • Passive (no cellular energy)
    • Molecules move from higher to lower concentration.
    • Entropy is the driving force.
  88. What is Osmosis?
    The simple diffusion of water
  89. What is Facilitated diffusion?
    • Passive
    • Molecules move from an area of higher to lower concentration.
    • Entropy is the driving force
    • Movement is through special membrane channels
  90. What is active transport?
    • Active (cellular energy needed, usually ATP)
    • Molecules move from lower concentration to higher.
  91. What is an example of active transport?
    NaKATPase pump
  92. What is an Exothermic reaction?
    Reactants have more energy than the products (energy given off to environment)
  93. What is an endothermic reaction?
    Reactants have less energy than the products (energy is absorbed from the environment)
  94. What is a Coenzyme?
    Organic molecules that associate with enzymes and allow them to catalyze reactions
  95. What is a Cofactor?
    Inorganic groups that associate with enzymes and allow them to catalyze reactions. They are often metal.
  96. What is the Overall reaction of cellular respiration?
    Glucose is broken down in the presence of O2 to yield Co2 and H2O plus energy in the form of ATP.
  97. What is ATP?
    Enery stored in the bond that holds the 3rd phosphate group in the molecule. When it is cleaved, the third phosphate is released along with energy. The resulting molecule with only 2 phosphate groups is ADP
  98. What is the first few steps of Glycolysis (reduced per class)?
    • The first few steps cost the cell 2 ATP's.
    • Reduce NAD (two)
    • 4 ATP's are produced in the latter steps.
    • No oxygen is required
  99. What does Glycolysis occur?
    Occurs within the cytoplasm (no mitochondria needed)
  100. What is the final product of Glycolysis?
    Two molecules of Pyruvates
  101. What is the fate of pyruvate in the absence of oxygen?
    • Fermentation reaction
    • Each pyruvate is converted to Lactic Acid
  102. Where is NAD oxidized?
    • Where it feeds onto pre-ATP generating steps to glycolysis.
    • A similar reaction occurs in organisms such as yeast except that Ethanol and carbon dioxide are the end products (along with oxidized NAD). This reaction is the basis of wine making.
  103. What is the fate of Pyruvates in the presence of oxygen?
    • Each pyruvate is converted to Acetyl CoA
    • With a total of 2 reduced NAD's is produced in the process
  104. What is initially generated interring the Kreb cycle?
    2C's from the Acetyl CoA and 4 pre-existing 4C molecule to generate a 6C molecule
  105. What is cleaved off with each cycle of the Kreb cycle?
    • 2C's
    • Released as 2 carbon dioxide molecules
  106. What happens with every release of C in the Kreb cycle with each turn?
    • With every released is captured in the form of 1 ATP
    • 3 reduced NAD's
    • 1 FAD
  107. Where is the Electron transport chain located?
    In the inner mitochondrial membrane
  108. What supplies the electrons for the Electron transport chain?
  109. What is the result at the end of the electron transport chain?
    Ultimately the electrons are passed to oxygen, which, with the addition of H+ produces water.
  110. How does the electron chain produce ATP?
    When the flow of elections are used to pump protons into the inter-membrane space, producing a proton gradient in the inter membrane space. When these protons flow passively back through the ATP synthetase channels, ATP is produced.
  111. For each NAD that passes its electrons down the chain produces how many ATP's?
    3 ATP's
  112. How many ATP's are produced when FAD passes its electrons?
    2 ATP's
  113. What is the final tally of ATP with the breakdown of Glucose in the presence of Oxygen?
    • 6 in glycolysis
    • 6 in the formation of Acetyl CoA
    • 24 in the Kreb cycle
    • Total of 36-38
  114. How many ATP's are produced with the breakdown of Glucose in the absence of Oxygen?
  115. What is the Final acceptor of electrons at the end of the electron transport chain?
  116. What is Osmosis?
Card Set
Bio Exam 2 flash cards.txt
Eli Bio