1. By calling the estates' general
    • a.      By calling the estates-general, the government sought a solution to financial crisis
    •                                                               i.      No wish for reform , nor did delegates who arrived at Versailles come with plans for revolutionary changes that emerged
  2. Over next years
    a.      Over next years, through interplay of deputies meeting in various legislative assemblies, the common people in Paris and peasants in countryside would be destroyed
  3. In elections
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    • a.      Estates General: representatives from three orders of French society
    •                                                               i.      In elections for it, government ruled that Third Estate should get double representation
    • 1.      As a result, while both First Estate (clergy) and Second (nobility) had 300 delegates each, commoners had 600
    • a.      2/3 were people with legal training and ¾ from towns with more than two thousand inhabitants, giving the Third Estate a particularly strong legal and urban representation
  4. Reps of noblies
    1.      Of 282 representatives of nobility, 90 were liberal minded, urban oriented, and interests in enlightened ides of century; half were under forty
  5. Activists of Third estate
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    • 1.      Activists of Third Estate and reform-minded individuals among the First and Second Estates had common ties in their youth, urban background, and hostility to privilege
  6. Local grievances
    a.      statements of local grievances, which were drafted throughout France during elections to Estates-General, advocated a regular constitutional government that would abolish the fiscal privileges of the church and nobility as the major way to regenerate the country
  7. Versailles
    •                                                               i.      Opened at Versailles on May 5, 1789
    • 1.      Divided from start over question of whether voting should be by order or by head
    • a.      Parlement of Paris (nobles of the robe): voting by order according to form used in 1614
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Each order would vote separately; each would have veto power over the other two, thus guaranteeing aristocratic control over reforms
  8. opposition
    • a.      Opposition to parlement’s proposal arose from group of reformers calling themselves patriots or “lovers of liberty”
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Claimed to represent nation, but consisted primarily of bourgeoisie and nobles
  9. Societyof Thirty
    • 1.      One group of patriots called Society of Thirty drew most of its members from the salons of Paris
    • a.      Some of this largely noble group had been directly influenced by American Revolution, but all affected by Enlightenment ideas and favored reforms made in light of reason and utility
  10. The National Assembly
    •                                                               i.      Failure of government to assume leadership at opening of Estates-General created opportunity for Third Estate to push its demands for voting by head
    • 1.      Since it had double representation, with the assistance of liberal nobles and clerics, it could turn the three estates into a single-chamber legislature that would reform France in its own way
  11. The National Assembly

    Abbe Sieyes
    • a.      Abbe Sieyes said the Third Estate is everything, but has done nothing for political order. It demands something
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Not representative of general feeling in 1789
    • 1.      Most delegates still wanted to make changes within a framework of respect for authority of the king; revival or reform didn’t mean the overthrow of traditional institutions
  12. The National Assembly
    First declaration of first estate
    • a.      When first estate declared in favor of voting by order, the Third Estate felt compelled to respond in a significant fashion
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      June 17, 1789: Third Estate voted to constitute itself a “National Assembly” and decided to draw up a constitution
  13. The National Assembly
    June 20
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      June 20: deputies of Third Estate arrived at meeting place to find doors locked; they moved to nearby tennis court and swore (Tennis Court Oath) that they would meet until they produced a French constitution
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      These actions were the first steps in the French Revolution, since the Third Estate had no legal right to act as the National Assembly
  14. The National Assembly
    This revolution was...
    •                                                               i.      This revolution, largely the work of lawyers of the Third Estate, was in jeopardy as the king sided with the First Estate and threatened to dissolve the Estates-General
    • 1.      Louis XIV now prepared to use force
    • a.      Revolution of lawyers= doomed
  15. The National Assembly
    Intervention of the common people
    •                                                               i.      Common people in urban and rural uprisings saved the Third Estate from the king’s attempts to stop the Revolution
    • 1.      Common people mobilized by both revolutionary and counterrevolutionary politicians and used to support their interests
    • 2.      Own interests as well
    • a.      Used name of Third Estate to wage war on rich, claiming the aristocrats were plotting to destroy the Estates-General and retain its privileges
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      War was not what deputies of the Third Estate planned
  16. The National Assembly
    •                                                               i.      Most famous of urban risings was fall of the Bastille
    • 1.      King’s attempt to take defensive measures by increasing troop numbers at arsenals in Paris and along roads to Versailles served to both intimidate and inflame public opinion
    • a.      Increased mob activity in Parisà Parisian leaders formed Permanent Committee to keep order
  17. The National Assembly
    Needing Arms, they..
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Needing arms, they organized a popular force to capture the Invalides, a royal armory, and on July 14, attacked the Bastille, another royal armory
    • 1.      Bastille: state prison but had 7 prisoners and few weapons except the defenders
    • a.      Imposing fortress: 8 towers connected by 9-ft-thick walls
  18. The National Assembly
    Defense of Bastille
    • a.      easily defended, but commander the marquis de Launay wanted negotiation
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      although fighting erupted, de Launay refused to open fire within his cannon, and the garrison soon surrendered
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Parisians thought the fall of the Bastille was a great victory, and it became a popular symbol of triumph over despotism
  19. The National Assembly
    Paris abandoned
    1.      Paris abandoned to insurgents, and Louis XVI was soon informed that royal troops were unreliableà collapse of royal authority as he couldn’t enforce his will
  20. The National Assembly
    • a.      Louis confirmed the appointment of the marquis de Lafayette as commander of a newly created citizens’ militia known as the National Guard
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      At the same time, independently of Paris situation, popular revolutions broke out in cities
  21. The National Assembly
    • 1.      Nantes: permanent committees and national guards created to maintain order after crowds seized chief citadels
    • a.      This collapse of royal authority in cities paralleled by peasant revolutions in countryside
  22. a.      Peasant Rebellions and the Great Fear
                                                                  i.      Growing resentment of entire seigniorial system, with fees and obligationsà exacerbated by economic and fiscal activities of the great estate holders—whether noble or bourgeois—in 1780s, created the conditions for a popular uprising
  23. a.      Peasant Rebellions and the Great Fear
    Matters in their own hand
    • 1.      Fall of Bastille and king’s capitulation to demands of Third Estate encouraged peasants to take matters into their own hands
    • a.      July 19-Aug 3: peasant rebellions in five areas of France with different patterns 
  24. a.      Peasant Rebellions and the Great Fear
    Difference in types of peasant rebellions
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Some places: peasants forced lay and ecclesiastical lords to renounce dues and tithes
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Elsewhere: burned charters listing their obligations
    • 1.      Peasants knew what they were doing and believed the king supported their actions
  25. a.      Peasant Rebellions and the Great Fear
    Agrarian Revolts
    •                                                               i.      Agrarian revolts were backdrop to the Great Fear, a vast panic that spread like wildfire through France between July 20-Aug 6
    • 1.      Fear of invasion by foreign troops, aided by supposed aristocratic plot, encouraged the formation of more citizens’ militias and permanent committees
    • a.      Greatest impact of agrarian revolts and Great Fear was on National Assembly meeting in Versailles
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