1. a.      Cause of French Revolution had long term and immediate forces
    •                                                               i.      Revolutions not the result of economic collapse and masses of impoverished people hungering for change
    •                                                             ii.      In fifty years before 1789, France had period of economic growth due to expansion of foreign trade and increase in industrial production, although many people, especially peasants, failed to share in the prosperity
  2. Social Structure of the Old Regime
    Long-range/ indirect causes of the French Revolution
    • a.      Long-range or indirect causes of the French Revolution= condition of French society
    •                                                               i.      Before: French society: unequal rights and privileges
    • 1.      Population divided into three orders/ estates
    • - First
    • - Second
    • - Third
  3. The First Estate
    •                                                               i.      Clergy (130,000 people); Church owned 10% of land
    •                                                             ii.      Exempt from taille, France’s chief tax, although the church agreed to pay a “voluntary” contribution every five years to the state
    •                                                           iii.      Radically divided
    • 1.      Higher clergy (aristocratic families) shared ability of nobles
    • 2.      Parish priests were commoners
  4. The Second Estate (role in society)
    •                                                               i.      Nobility (no more than 350,000 people) with 25-30% of land
    • 1.      Under Louis XV and Louis XVI, the nobility played important role in French society, holding many of the leading positions in the government, the military, the law courts, and the higher church offices
    • 2.      Heavy industry in France controlled by nobles, either through investment or ownership of mining/ metallurgical enterprises
  5. The Second Estate Divided into what?
    • nobility of the robe
    • nobility of the sword
  6. The SEcond Estate: nobility of the robe
    • a.      Nobility of the robe derived their status from officeholding, a pathway that had often enabled commoners to attain noble rank
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Dominated royal law courts and important administrative offices
  7. The SEcond Estate: nobility of the sword
    • a.      Nobility of the sword claimed to be descendants of original medieval nobility
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Sought to expand privileges at expense of the monarchy—to defend liberty by resisting the arbitrary actions of monarchy—and to maintain their monopolistic control over positions in military, church, and government
  8. The Second Estate
    In 1781,...
    • 1.      In 1781, in reaction to the ambitions of aristocrats newly arrived from the bourgeoisie, the Segur Law attempted to limit the sale of military officerships to 4th generation nobles, excluding newly enrolled members of nobility
    • 2.      Many poor nobles, but on whole the fortunes of wealthy were Others 
  9. The Second Estate
    Nobles and marriage
    • 1.      Nobles married within own ranks, making nobility closed group
    • a.      Although privileges varied from region to region, possessing these privileges was a hallmark of nobility
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Common to all tax were tax exemptions, especially the taille
  10. The Third Estate
                                                                  i.      Commoners of society with overwhelming majority of French population divided by differences in occupation, level of education, and wealth
  11. The Third Estate: Peasants
    • 1.      Peasants (75-80%) with 35-40% of land, although landholdings varied from area to area and more than half had no or little land on which to survive
    • a.      Serfdom no longer existed on large scale in France, but French peasants had obligations to local landlords that they deeply resented
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      These relics of feudalism included payment of fees for use of village facilities, such as flour mill, community oven, and winepress, as well as tithes to clergy
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Nobles could hunt on their land
  12. The Third Estate
    Artisans, shopkeepers, etc.
    • a.      Although 18th had rapid urban growth, 90% French towns had less than 10,000 inhabitants, with nine cities having 50000+
    • b.      18th: consumer prices rose faster than wages, with result that these urban groups experienced a decline in purchasing power
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Paris: income lagged behind food prices and especially behind a 140 percent rise in rents for working people in skilled and unskilled trade
  13. The Third Estate
    Artisans, shopkeepers--> economic discontent
    • a.      Economic discontent of themàimportant role in Revolution
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Ups and downs of revolutionary rights correlated with changes in bread prices
    • 1.      Ordinary people spent 1/3 to ½ of their income on bread, which constituted ¾ of their diet
    • a.      Sudden increases in price of bread affected public order
  14. The Third Estate
    Artisans...--> bread prices
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      People expected bread prices to be controlled
    • 1.      They grew desperate when prices rose, and only recourse was mob action to change situations
    • b.      Towns and cities also home to large groups of unskilled and often unemployed workers
  15. The Third Estate
    Bourgeoisie/ Middle Class
    • 1.      Bourgeoisie/ Middle Class (8%) owning 20-25% land
    • a.      Merchants, industrialists, and bankers who controlled resources of trade, manufacturing, and finance and benefited from economic prosperity after 1730
    • b.      Professional people—layers, doctors, etc.
  16. The Third Estate
    Bourgeoisie/ Middle Class sought..
    • a.      Many members of bourgeoisie sought security and status through purchase of land
    • b.      Own set of grievances because excluded from social and political privileges monopolized by nobles
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Resentments assumed to be major cause, but not simple case of unified bourgeoisie against a unified noble class
    • 1.      Neither group monolithic
  17. The Third Estate
    Bourgeoisie/ Middle Class
    a.      Just like nobles who were separated by differences in wealth and importance, a similar gulf separated wealthy financiers form local lawyers
  18. Similarities of nobility and bourgeiosis
    • a.      Possible for wealthy middle-class individuals to enter ranks of nobility by obtaining public offices and entering the nobility of the robe (6500 new nobles over century)
    • b.      Aristocrats also engaging in capitalist activities on landed estates, such as mining, metallurgy, and glassmaking, and were even investing in foreign trade
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Viewed in terms of economic function, many members of the bourgeoisie and nobility formed single class
  19. The Third Estate
    Bourgeoisie/ Middle Class
    New and critical ideas
    • 1.      New and critical ideas of Enlightenment proved attractive to aristocrats and bourgeoisie
    • a.      Members of both groups shared common world of liberal political thought
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Old view that French Revolution was result of conflict between two rigid orders (bourgeoisie and nobility) enlarged and revised
  20. Aristocratic adn Bourgeois elites
    • 1.      Both aristocratic and bourgeois elites, long accustomed to new socioeconomic reality based on wealth and economic achievement, were increasingly frustrated by monarchical system resting on privileges and on an old and rigid social order based on concept of estates
    • a.      Opposition of these elites to the old order à took drastic action against monarchical regime, although they soon split over the question of how far to proceed in eliminating traditional privileges
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