19.1.3, 4

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  1. I.                   Forming a New Nation
    13 colonies
    • a.      13 colonies independent= United States of America
    •                                                               i.      Fear of concentrated power and concern for their own interests caused little enthusiasm for establishing a united nation with a strong central government
    • 1.      Articles of Confederation (1781) didn’t provide strong central governmentà new movement for national government
  2. Summer of 1787
    • a.      Summer of 1787: 55 delegates attended convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Convention’s delegates—wealthy, politically experienced, well educated—rejected revision and devised new constitution
  3. Proposed Constitution
    • a.      Proposed constitution= central government different from/ superior to governments of individual states
    •                                                               i.      National government given the power to levy taxes, raise a national army, regulate domestic and foreign trade, and create a national currency
  4. Central Government
    • 1.      President= executive with power to execute laws, veto legislation acts, supervise foreign affairs, direct military forces
    • 2.      Legislative= second branch composed of Senate, elected by state legislatures, and the House of Representatives, elected by people
    • 3.      Supreme Court and other courts necessary by Congress=third branch
    • a.      Enforce Constitution as “supreme law of land”
  5. Approved?
    • a.      US Constitution approved by states in 1788
    •                                                               i.      Important to success= promise to add bill of rights to it as new government’s first piece of business
    • 1.      March 1789, new Congress proposed 12 amendments to Constitution; the ten that were ratified by states called Bill of Rights
  6. Bill of Rights
    • a.      Freedom of speech, religion, press, petition, and assembly, bear arms, protection against unreasonable searches and arrests, trial by jury, due process of law, protection of property rights
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Rights derived from natural rights philosophy of 18th c. philosophes
  7. Impact of the American Revolution on Europe
    • a.      1789: beginning of a new USA and eruption of French Revolution
    •                                                               i.      American Revolution impact on Europeans
    • 1.      Books, newspapers, magazines provided accounts of American events
    • a.      Era of significant changes, including new arrangements in international politics 
  8. Impact of the American Revolution on Europe
    What did it prove?
    • a.      It proved to many Europeans that the liberal political ideas of the Enlightenment were not vapid utterances of intellectuals
    •                                                               i.      The rights of man, ideas of liberty and equality, popular sovereignty, the separation of powers, and freedom of religion, thought, and press were not utopian ideals
    • 1.      Americas created new social contract embodied in a constitution and made concepts of liberty and representative government a reality
    • a.      New world of Enlightenment could be achieved
  9. Impact of the American Revolution on Europe
    • a.      Information received from returning soldiers, especially French officers in the American War
    •                                                               i.      One, the aristocratic marquis de Lafayette, volunteered for service in America in order to get back at England, France’s old enemy
  10. Impact of the American Revolution on Europe
    • 1.      Closely associated with Washington?, he returned to France with ideas of individual liberties and notions of republicanism and popular sovereignty
    • 2.      Became member of Society of Thirty, a club composed of people from the Paris salons
  11. Impact of the American Revolution on Europe
    Lovers of Liberty
    • a.      These “lovers of liberty” were influential in early stages of French Revolution
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen showed unmistakable signs of influence of American Declaration of Independence as well as the American state constitutions
  12. Impact of the American Revolution on Europe
    American Revolution vs. French
    • a.      American Revolution less important than French
    •                                                               i.      French: more complex, more violent, far more radical  in attempt to construct new political and social order
    • b.      French revolution as a model of revolution for Europe and much of the rest of the world
    •                                                               i.      To many, it remains the political movement that truly inaugurated the modern political world
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19.1.3, 4
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