Neuro Exam 2.2

  1. What are the specific functional cortical areas of the telencephalon?
    • primary motor cortex
    • primary sensory cortex
    • primary visual cortex
    • primary auditory cortex
  2. What is another name for the primary motor cortex?
    cerebral motor cortex
  3. Where is the primary motor cortex located?
    • in pre-central gyrus of frontal lobe
    • in front of central sulcus
    • areas anterior to pre-central gyrus (association areas)
  4. What is the central sulcus?
    motor strip
  5. What does the primary motor cortex control?
    voluntary skeletal muscle activity on contralateral side
  6. The primary motor cortex is considered part what system?
    pyramidal system
  7. What does the pryamidal system control?
    voluntary skeletal muscle activity
  8. What does the extrapyramidal system control?
    involuntary skeletal muscle activity
  9. The pre-central gyrus contains cell bodies of:
    Upper motor nueon
  10. How is the pre-central gyrus organized?
  11. What does it mean for the pre-central gyrus to be somatotopically organized?
    specific areas of the cortex control specific parts of the body (homunculus)
  12. A large amount of the cortex is dedicated to:
    smaller organs (more finesse mm)
  13. Finesse control =
    more neurons involved
  14. Motor unit:
    ratio of lower motor neuron to number of extrafusal fibers being innervated
  15. Contralateral v. ipsilateral:
    depends on where lesion is on brain--some will be contralateral manifestations, others ipsilateral
  16. What are other names for the primary sensory cortex?
    • primary somatosensory area
    • somatosethic area
    • cerebral sensory cortex
  17. Where is the primary sensory cortex located?
    post-central gyrus (behind central sulcus) of the parietal lobe
  18. What is the function of the primary sensory cortex?
    • allows discrimination and perception of and the location of general sensations
    • --need to know what the sensation is and where it is
  19. General sensations are different to the 5 special senses, they are:
    • pain
    • temperature
    • pressure
    • crude touch (rough, smooth, etc.)
    • vibration
    • fine tough (2 point discrimination)
    • proprioception (body position sense)
  20. The left post-central gyrus controls what side of the body?
  21. The right post-central gyrus controls what side of the body?
  22. Does the post-central gyrus have the same somatotopic organization as the primary motor cortex?
  23. If there is a lesion on a part of the post-central gyrus...
    you will lose sensation and perception of the specific area on the contralateral side
  24. More sensitive parts of your body have:
    a larger portion of the cortex devoted to them
  25. Damage to a part of the primary sensory cortex impacts:
    discrimination and perception of and location of general sensations on the contralateral side of the body
  26. If info doesn't reach the cortex:
    then you are not consciously aware of sensation/environment
  27. If the post-central gyrus is removed/damaged, can the patient perceive pain?
    yes, from the thalamus
  28. What is the reference point for contralateral v. ipsilateral in the primary sensory cortex?
    the lesion
  29. Effect on opposite side of the lesion in primary sensory cortex is:
  30. Effect on same side of the lesion in primary sensory cortex is:
  31. Where must info go in order to be perceived?
    post-central gyrus
  32. Where is the primary visual cortex located?
    • occipital (posterior) lobe
    • adjacent to calcarine fissue
  33. In Broadmann's terminology, the primary visual cortex is in which area?
    area #17
  34. How are images received in the brain?
  35. What does the visual cortex do with the inverted images?
    • flips them right side up to make sense of them
    • (processess upside down, black and white image)
  36. Visual info has to go where in order to perceive sight?
    primary visual cortex
  37. Damage to the primary visual cortex will cause what?
    • blindness (despite intact eyes, nerves, aqueous humor, etc.)
    • --Nothing is perceived until it reaches the cortex
  38. Where is the primary auditory cortex?
    superior temporal gyrus of temporal lobe
  39. What is the function of the primary auditory cortex?
    helps to perceive sound
  40. Damage to the primary auditory cortex can cause:
    deafness (if both sides are damaged)
  41. Auditory info has to make it to the primary auditory cortex to:
    make sense of what is being heard and allow you to hear
  42. What are the primary cortical areas?
    • Intellectual, personality, psychic, abstract, self-control, cognition
    • olfactory cortex
    • gustatory cortex
    • association areas
    • motor speech cortex
    • language cortex
    • memory cortex
  43. Where are the intellectual, personality, psychic, abstract, self-control, cognition primary cortical areas?
    anterior portion of frontal lobe
  44. Intellectual personality, psychic, abstract, self-control, cognition primary cortical areas primarily occur in:
    anterior 1/5 of frontal lobe
  45. Is the frontal lobe important?
  46. Injuries to the frontal lobe result in:
  47. What part of a person does damage to the frontal lobe change?
    personality changes completely
  48. What does the olfactory cortex perceive?
  49. The olfactory cortex involves 2 areas located where?
    inferior temporal lobe
  50. The olfactory cortex involves what 2 areas located in the inferior temporal lobe?
    • lateral olfactory area
    • medial olfactory area
  51. What is another name for the lateral olfactory area?
  52. Where is the lateral olfactory area?
    passes lateral to the optic chiasm and terminates at the uncus
  53. What is the uncus?
    medial bulging in the parahippocampal gyrus
  54. What is the most significant area in terms of conscious olfactory response?
    lateral olfactory area
  55. Lateral olfactory area:
    smell, inferior temporal lobe
  56. Uncus
    where smell perception is found
  57. Where is the medial olfactory area?
    medial to optic chiasm and under (in inferior temporal lobe
  58. What does the medial olfactory area become?
    anterior perforated substance
  59. What does the gustatory cortex perceive?
  60. How many locations of the brain are involved w/ taste (gustatory complex)?
  61. What 3 locations of the brain are involved in the gustatory complex?
    • most ventral portion of post-central gyrus
    • insular cortex
    • frontal operculum
  62. Where is the insular cortex?
    • insula
    • deep to lateral fissure
  63. Where is the frontal operculum?
    • frontal lobe
    • part of Broca's area
  64. What is the function of the association areas?
    refinement and interpretation
  65. What are association areas?
    areas of cortex surrounding (adjacent to) major cortical areas previously described and they refine and/or interpret major functions (auditory, visual, motor, primary somatosensory)
  66. The associations areas helps visual cortex to:
    see depth perception and other internal visual calculations (adds color, movement, 3D perception, etc. to primary vision)
  67. Damage to the association area may cause:
    loss of color, movement, depth perception, even though vision remains
  68. Why is the association area important in therapy?
    important to keep in mind w/ pt's w/ neurological insults (may have intact primary area, but lesion in association area)
  69. A lesion in the association area will present w/:
    abnormal symptoms
  70. What is the motor speech cortex?
    allows a person to initiate speech by influencing portions of pre-central gyrus that control skeletal muscle for speech (larynx, pharynx, tongue, face, and mouth)
  71. What is a major area of the motor speech cortex?
    Broca's area
  72. Where is the Broca's area located?
    inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe
  73. What does the Broca's area do?
    acts like a computer that instructs portions of the pre-central gyrus to instigate speech
  74. What is the Broca's area?
    • primary cortex for motor speech
    • association area of pre-central gyrus that finesses function
  75. What Broadmann's classification areas is the Broca's area?
    areas 44 and 45
  76. Damage to the Broca's area causes:
    aphasia (often done in a stroke)
  77. Aphasia:
    general term for language disorders to include reading, writing, speaking, or comprehension of written or spoken words, generally due to cerebral cortex or conduction dysfunction
  78. Broca's aphasia is also called:
    • motor aphasia
    • non-fluent aphasia
  79. What is Broca's aphasia caused by?
    damage to Broca's area, generally in stroke of middle cerebral artery
  80. What happens with Broca's aphasia?
    • pt can't or has difficulty forming words even though vocal cords and innervations are normal
    • speech is slow and elaborate, deliberate; pts must concentrate.  Applies to speech and writing
    • Verbally compromised and graphically compromised
  81. Concerning the motor speech cortex, 90% of humans are dominant in which hemisphere?
    left, w/ Broca's area strongest on left hemisphere
  82. A pt. presenting w/ stroke and affected leftside will have severe damage to:
    Broca's area
  83. Pts w/ right-side stroke will have:
    some symptoms but it will be less dramatic than if on left
  84. Broca's aphasia on left side is seen with which side of mm paralyzes of the face and what else?
    right sided mm paralyzes of the face and a hemianopsia
  85. What causes Broca's aphasia w/ mm paralyzes of the face and a hemianopsia?
    middle cerebral artery
  86. What does non-fluent mean?
    words don't flow despite the ability to perceive language and organize though processess
  87. Are pts with Broca's aphasia aware that they can't get words out?
    yes, and often become very frustrated
  88. Hemianopia:
    loss of half a visual field
  89. Symptoms of Broca's aphasia:
    • hemianopia
    • paralysis of facial mm on the right
    • can't speak or write
  90. Why does hemianopia occur w/ Broca's aphasia?
    because optic pathway and internal capsule are close to Broca's area
  91. What is the name for the language cortex?
    Wernicke's area
  92. Where is the language cortex located?
    in posterior part of superior temporal gyrus
  93. What does the language cortex control?
    comprehension of spoken words and written and auditory language
  94. 10% of the language cortex extends into:
    parietal lobe
  95. Even though 10% of the language cortex extends into the parietal lobe, it is still considered a function of which lobe?
  96. Which hemisphere is more dominant considering the language cortex?
    left (90% of population)
  97. What are some other names for Wernicke's aphasia?
    • fluent aphasia
    • receptive aphasia
  98. Wernicke's aphasia:
    • involved w/ comprehension of spoken and written language
    • able to speak and write words but sequence is not normal, so it doesn't make sense
    • linguistically compromised
  99. Is a pt w/ Wernicke's aphasia aware that they don't make sense?
    yes, and they often become frustrated
  100. If there is a large lesion on the language cortex, then visual and linguistic ability is:
  101. Wernicke's area must be able to receive input from where?
    other areas of the brain
  102. Receptive aphasia:
    when the wernicke's area is not properly receiving visual or auditory information from other areas of the brain
  103. Empty speech:
    speaking, but it doesn't make sense
  104. Paraphasia:
    substitute one word for another
  105. Neologisms:
    create new and meaningless words and put them into senstences
  106. jargon aphasia:
    speech is incomprehensible but seems logical to the pt
  107. What artery feeds the Wernicke's area?
    middle cerebral artery
  108. What artery feeds the Broca's area?
    middle cerebral artery
  109. Conduction aphasia:
    lesion impairs conduction from Wernicke's to Broca's
  110. In conduction aphasia the Wernicke's and Broca's areas are not specifically damaged, but the lesion destroys the:
    arcuate fasciculus
  111. Arcuate fasciculus:
    efferent connected from Wernicke's to Broca's areas
  112. What are the characteristics of conduction aphasia?
    • less fluent in language than pts w/ Wernicke's aphasia
    • may make periphrastic errors
    • comprehension is good but ability to repeat is limited/poor
    • naming is impaired
    • reading aloud is impaired, but pt can read silently w/ good comprehension
    • writing is abnormal w/ misspelled and omitted words
  113. What are periphrastic errors?
    substituting words
  114. Is writing a function of the Wernicke's or Broca's area?
  115. What is the most severe form of aphasia?
    global aphasia
  116. Global aphasia:
    • inability to use language in any form due to extensive damage to Broca's, Wernicke's, and arcuate fasciculus
    • Linguistically and verbally compromised: unable to read/write well, unable to comprehend speech, unable to produce intelligible speech
  117. Which hemisphere does global aphasia generally occur in?
    left hemisphere
  118. What is damaged with global aphasia?
    • Broca's
    • Wernicke's
    • Arcuate fasciculus
  119. A stroke this catastrophic has low survival rates, so this is:
    an uncommon presentation
  120. The memory cortex occurs in how many area of the temporal lobe?
    • hippocampus
    • amygdala
  121. Where is the hippocampus?
    • temporal lobe
    • located deep to the parahippocampus
  122. Damage to hippocampus results in:
    anterograde amnesia
  123. Anterograde amnesia:
    would remember previous events (that occurred before damage) but not events that happened after damage
  124. What is another name for the amygdala?
    amygdaloid nuclear complex
  125. What is the amygdala?
    deeply seated group of nucleui in the telencephalon
  126. What occurs in the amygdala?
    initial processing and storage of memory
  127. What happens to memories that don't pass through the amygdala?
    it doesn't get remembered
  128. If you are going to remember something consciously, what has to happen?
    The info must be processed by the amygdala and the hippocampus
Card Set
Neuro Exam 2.2
review of neuro lecture 2 for exam 2