Early American- 2

  1. Where did we first start to see English settlers?
  2. Why did the English come to the United States?
    for religious freedom
  3. What was the goal of the settlers who came to America?
    to transform their new surroundings
  4. Early American architecture was _____ and _____.
    Structural and Functional
  5. The architecture that they created in Early America needed to create protection from what?
    weather, wild animals, and the Indians
  6. What was the first home?
    A log cabin
  7. In the U.S, how was waddle and dab constructed?
    twigs and clay
  8. What is clap board?
    The "skin" overlay in waddle and dab construction

    Clap board was a better insulator than waddle and dab.
  9. Cedar Shingles
    cedar from cedar trees would protected the wood.
  10. When was brick first used?
    • (Early American Colonial)
    • 18th century in the middle- southern colonies (Virginia etc.)
  11. Dormer
    window in the roofline
  12. What is a window in the roofline called?

    (Early American Colonial)
  13. Gable roof
    had roofing tiles on two sides
  14. What type of roof has roofing tiles on two sides?
    Gable roof
  15. How did they keep the bugs out since they had no glass for the windows?
    Oiled paper which made it transparent, but they still used shutters with it.
  16. How high was the first ceiling?
    7 feet

    (Early American Colonial)
  17. When do Hepplewhite and Sheraton come back?
    American Federal Design
  18. During the American Federal period, what was America's architectural goal?
    to bring comfort, dignity and quality to all classes
  19. Washington and Jefferson wanted an architectural style that represented forms from _______ & _______.
    Democratic Greece & Republican Rome.
  20. Who wanted an architectural style that represented Democratic Greece and Republican Rome?
    Washington and Jefferson
  21. "Post Colonial" style was for who?
    the lower class
  22. "Federal" style was for who?
    the upper class because it was expensive to build
  23. What buildings are considered Federal Style?
    governmental buildings- banks, town halls, churches, residential architecture etc.
  24. What was American Federal style made up of?
    • The Adam Brothers from England
    • The Neoclassical
    • Jefferson's style (was more Roman influenced ie. dome)
  25. Who was the first one to bring the Dome to America?
    Thomas Jefferson
  26. What are hypens?
    the 'wings' of a house
  27. What are the "wings" of a house called?
  28. How were Federal interiors?
    • oval, round, octagonal rooms
    • adam staircase
    • ceilings taller on first floor
    • exterior ornamentation brought inside
    • delicately scaled ornamentation
  29. When were oval, round and octagonal rooms used?
    American Federal Design
  30. When were the ceilings taller on the first floor?
    American Federal Design
  31. When was exterior ornamentation brought inside?
    American Federal Design
  32. Whose books were brought to America for esthetics?
    Hepplewhite and Sheratin
  33. Hepplewhite and Sheratin influenced what period's furniture?
    American Federal Design
  34. Who reproduced Hepplewhite and Sheratin furniture?
    Duncan Phyfe
  35. Who was America's first cabinet maker?
    Duncan Phyfe
  36. What is Duncan Phyfe best known for?
    • Lire forms on chair backs
    • sofa arms
    • table supports
  37. Who used Grecian curves in furniture?
    Duncan Phyfe
  38. Who used the splayed leg in furniture?
    Duncan Phyfe?
  39. What leg did Duncan Phyfe use in his furniture?
    Splayed leg
  40. What type of wood did Hepplewhite and Sheratin use?
    • Satin wood
    • Mahogany
    • Fruit wood
  41. Who used the eagle in their furniture?
    Hepplewhite, Sheratin and Duncan
  42. Why did they use the eagle in their furniture?
    because it is our national bird
  43. What timer period did they use plaster on the ceiling and on the walls?
    American Colonial
  44. What timer period had plank floors?
    American Colonial
  45. What type of woods were used in American Colonial?
    local woods- oak and pine

    then walnut and maple

    then fruit woods (cheery=most pop)

    then mahogany
  46. During American Colonial, the furniture was copied from where?
  47. Pilgrim furniture is from what period?
    Early American Colonial
  48. Who designed the first furniture "set"?
    Pilgrim furniture- American Colonial
  49. What time period are quoins from?
    American Georgian
  50. Georgian Style was designed for who?
    Wealthier Americans
  51. How may sides does a hipped roof have?
  52. How many sides does a gable roof have?
  53. What time period used parquet floors?
    American Georgian
  54. When did they start using wallpaper?
    American Georgain
  55. What two designers are under American Georgian Design?
    Queen Anne and Chippendale
  56. Hepplewhite and Sheraton furniture are from what period?
    American Federal
  57. Duncan Phyfe is from what period?
    American Federal
  58. When is the first time we see a middle class?
    American Victorian
  59. What period was also known as the Guilded age?
    American Victorian
  60. What does the Guilded age mean?
    fortunes could be made overnight
  61. What periods had a revival during the American Victorian?
    • Greek
    • Gothic
    • Italian Villa and Italianate
    • Stick style
    • Second empire
    • Queen Anne
    • Egyptian/ Moorish
    • Shingle style
    • Richardson Romanesque
  62. Describe qualities of Greek Revival during the American Victorian period.
    • symmetrical facade
    • pediments
    • pilasters
    • lights above door
  63. Describe qualities of Gothic Revival during the American Victorian period.
    • trefoil/ quatrefoil windows
    • bargeboard tracery in roofline/ gothic tracery
    • sharp sloped roof
    • board and batten siding
    • pointed arches and dormers
  64. Describe qualities of Italian Villas during the American Victorian period.
    • classical ornamentation
    • overscaled appearance
  65. Describe qualities of the Italianates during the American Victorian period.
    • classical ornamentation
    • overscaled appearance
  66. Describe qualities of Stick Style homes during the American Victorian period.
    • Asymmetrical
    • sickwork applied to exterior over clapboard creating a half timber effect
  67. Describe qualities of Second Empire homes during the American Victorian period.
    • mansard roofs *** (steep roofs)
    • heavy baroque ornamentation
  68. Describe qualities of Queen Anne's revival during the American Victorian period.
    • Asymmetrical
    • variety of shapes and decorative details

  69. Describe qualities of Egyptian Revival during the American Victorian period.
    • symmetrical balance
    • egyptian columns, ornamentation, symbolism
  70. Describe qualities of Moorish Revival during the American Victorian period.
    • asymmetrical
    • horeshoe arches, onion domes..
  71. Describe qualities of Richardson Romanesque during the American Victorian period.
    • Rusticated stone exterior in brownstone or granite
    • heavy load bearing walls give fortress like appearance
    • massive stone roman arches
  72. What are the three categories of American Victorian furniture?
    • Historic revival styles
    • Reform movement
    • Victorian inventions
  73. Describe qualities of Empire furniture during the American Victorian period.
    • furniture is heavy and masculine
    • classic greek forms: turned pillars, columns and "S" and "C" scrolls
  74. Describe qualities of Rococo revival furniture during the American Victorian period.
    • fluid and feminine
    • cabriole leg
  75. Describe qualities of Renaissance revival furniture during the American Victorian period.
    • brash
    • bold
    • massive
    • overscaled
    • greko-roman forms used; crests, gilding, volutes, medallions, all classical moldings
  76. Describe qualities of Cottage furniture during the American Victorian period.
    • turning in legs
    • was mass produced
    • scaled down and simplified
  77. Describe qualities of Golden Oak furniture during the American Victorian period.
    • deep yellow wood that exposed the true grain of the wood
    • sturdy
    • informal
    • simple
    • no ornamentaion
    • (firplace shield from this period)
  78. Who is Michael Thonet?
    he produced bentwood furniture
  79. Who produced bentwood furniture?
    Michael Thonet
  80. Who won awards in London's great exhibition of 1851?
    Michael Thonet
  81. What furniture was the most popular out of the Victorian inventions?
  82. What are the categories under Victorian Inventions?
    • Papier mache
    • Horn
    • Metal
    • Wicker
    • Rustic furniture
    • Patent furniture
  83. When was an eyebrow window used?
    Richardson Romanesque
Card Set
Early American- 2
second test