Psychology test 2

  1. Developmental psychology
    • The study of how behavior changes over time.
    • A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes through life span.
  2. Conception
    The first 2 weeks of pregnancy
  3. Zygote
    • The fertilized egg
    • Union of 2 gametes sperm and egg.
  4. Germanal
    It enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
  5. Embryo
    • Developing human organism from 2-8 weeks after fertilization.
    • The ground work for all body structures and major organs develop.
  6. Fetus
    • Developing organism from the 9th week after conception till birth.
    • Brain growth.
  7. Age of Viability
    • 22 weeks after conception.
    • Age at which a fetus can survive outside the mother if specialized medical care is available.
  8. Teratogens
    Refers to any environmental agent ( viruses, drugs, chemicals, malnutrition) that cause damage during the prenatal period
  9. Maturation
    • The biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior.
    • Set the basic course of development but experience adjusts it.
  10. Motor skills
    Refers to the movement of muscles: the abilities needed to move and control the body.
  11. Reflexes are...
    • 1. Involuntary physical responses to stimuli.
    • 2. Inborn, unlearned, automatic responses to particular forms of stimulation.
  12. Schemas
    The way of thinking about and interacting with the environment.
  13. Piagets 4 stages of Cognitive Development
    Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal operation.
  14. Object permanance
    • When children realize out of sight still exists.
    • Peak-a-boo.
  15. Temperament
    The inborn predisposition to consistently behave and react in certain ways.
  16. Attachment
    The strong emotional connection one shares with one's caregivers (mom)
  17. Types of Temperament
    • 1. Easy- positive disposition, adapt to new experiences.
    • 2. Difficult- Negative mood, cry frequently, and slow to adapt to new situations.
    • 3. Slow to warm up- low activity level, somewhat negative, low adaptablity.
  18. Stranger anxiety
    Fear, caution, and wariness an infant displays when encountering unfamiliar people.
  19. Separation anxiety
    The fear infants display when a familiar caregiver leaves.
  20. Imprinting
    The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life.
  21. Harlow
    • Body contact= connection
    • Monkeys
  22. Contact comfort
    • Positive emotions afforded by touch.
    • Living beings have a need for contact
  23. When children lack attachment..
    • 1. Withdrawn
    • 2. Frightened
    • 3. Unable to develop speech.
    • Associate with Mary Ainsworth- she applied this to babies.
  24. Assimilation
    Absorb new info into current knowledge.
  25. Accommodation
    Altering a belief to make it compatible with a new experience.
  26. Vygotsky
    • Russian psychologist.
    • Social and cultural influences on learning.
  27. Scaffolding
    Parents provide initial guidance in childs learning then gradually remove structure.
  28. Puberty
    • Stage in which an individual reaches sexual maturity and becomes physilogically capable of sexual reproduction.
    • Hall- "adolescent and puberty"
  29. Primary sexual characteristics
    Reproductive organs and genitals
  30. Secondary sexual characteristics
    Nonreproductive traits.
  31. Limbic System
    is developed- emotional response work..
  32. Pre-frontal cortex
    • Not even close to develop
    • decision making is not fully functioning
    • Causes implusivity.
  33. Cognitive Development
    • Formal operations.
    • Piaget.
    • Identity, sex, and gender
  34. Identity
    A person's definition or description of himself, including the values, beliefs, and ideals that guide individual behavior.
  35. Sex
    male or female
  36. Gender
    • How you associate with that.
    • How you interpret yourself.
  37. Piaget is to ______ development as Kohlberg is to ________ development
    cognitive; moral
  38. Menopause
    The termination of menstration, marketing the end of a woman's reproductive potential
  39. Fluid intelligence
    Ability to reason speedily
  40. Crystalline intelligence
    Accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.
  41. What are 2 defining themes in adult life?
    Love and work
  42. Midlife crisis
    Phase of adulthood characterized by emotional distress about again and attempt to become youthful.
  43. Empty-nest syndrome
    Period of depression in mothers (parents) following the departure of children from home.
  44. Sensation
    The detection of physical energy by sense organs; then sends information to the brain
  45. Perception
    The brain's selection, organization, and interpretation of raw sensory inputs.
  46. Sensory vs. Perception
    • S- The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
    • P- The process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
  47. Bottom-up Processing
    Analysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind.
  48. Top-down Processing
    Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawng on our experience and expectations.
  49. Absolute Threshold
    Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
  50. Sensory Adaptation
    Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
  51. 3 steps of stimulation
    • 1. Reception- the stimulation of sensory receptor cells by energy. (sound, light, color, etc.)
    • 2. Transduction- transforming this cell stimulation into neural impules.
    • 3. Transmission- delivering this neural infor to brain to be process.
  52. Transduction
    Conversion of external energies or substances into a neural impulse that one's brain can nterpret.
  53. Parallel Processing
    Processing of several aspects of the stimulus simultaneously.
  54. Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic theory
    there are 3 types of colors- red, green, and blue.
  55. Sound Characteristics
    • 1. frequency- pitch
    • 2. intensity- loudness
  56. 4 components of touch
    Pressure, warmth, cold, pain
  57. Gate- control theory
    The spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.
  58. Endorphins
    These hormones can be released by the body to reduce pain perception.
  59. Pain Control
    Thought distraction
  60. When do taste receptors reproduce?
    Every 2 weeks
  61. Sensory Interaction
    One sense affects another sense
  62. Gestalt
    • meaningful patterns
    • Forms a "whole"
  63. Depth perception
    Enables us to judge distances
  64. Linear Perspective
    • Parallel lines, such as these rows of flowers, appear to converge in the distance.
    • The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance.
  65. Percetual Constancy
    • Our ability to see objects as appearing the same even under different lighting conditions, at different distances and angles
    • Top down process.
  66. Moon Illusion
    The moon appears larger when it is near the horizon than when it's high in the sky.
  67. The Ames Room
    Trapezoidal room with slanted floor and ceiling, makes occupants appear to vary in height.
  68. Selective Attention
    Process of focusing on one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others.
  69. Perceptual Sets
    • Relationship between a stimulus and its context
    • A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
  70. Kinesthesis
    Refers to sensin gthe movement and position of individual body parts relatice to each other.
  71. Context Effects
    • Context CAN radically alter perception
    • It is instilled by culture
  72. Egocentrism
    • A inability to see the world from other's perspective.
    • The world is all about them.
  73. Conservation
    Despite a transformation in the phsycial presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same.
Card Set
Psychology test 2
chapter 5 & 6