Envoy EMB Limitations (3-12-19)

  1. EMB AFM limitations are displayed in what font?
    Times New Roman
  2. Required Flight Crew
    Pilot, Co-pilot (Captain, First Officer)
  3. Types of Aircraft Operations Approved
    (Aircraft meets the requirements of Title 14 CFR Parts 25 and 36)
    • Day and Night
    • VFR and IFR
    • Flight in Icing Conditions
    • RVSM
  4. Max altitude for operation after an in-flight depressurization?
    10,000 ft. MSL unless MEA or other constraints require a higher altitude.

    (Maximum altitude when aircraft is dispatched for unpressurized flight is 10,000 ft.)
  5. Maximum differential pressure?
    8.1 psi
  6. Cabin Pressurization Auto Mode normal maximum differential pressure?
    7.8 psi
  7. Maximum negative differential pressure?
    -0.3 psi
  8. Max Operating Airspeed (VMO/MMO)
    320 knots / 0.78 Mach
  9. Max Operating Airspeed (KIAS) - 8,000 to 10,000 ft. MSL (VMO)
    Red Line

    VMO/MMO increases linearly from 250 knots at 8,000 ft. to 320 knots at 10,000 ft. Do not deliberately exceed red line.
  10. Max Operating Airspeed (KIAS) - up to 8,000 ft. MSL (VMO)
    250 knots
  11. Max Turbulence Penetration Speed (VB/MB)
    • 250 knots / 0.63 Mach (Whichever is lower)
    • 200 knots at or below 10,000 ft.
  12. Max Maneuvering Speed (VA)
    200 knots

    *Full or nearly full rudder deflection in one direction followed by a full or nearly full deflection in the other direction, even at speeds below VA, can dramatically increase the risk of structural failure of the vertical stabilizer or the rudder
  13. Landing Gear Extension Speed (VLOE)
    250 knots
  14. Landing Gear Extended Speed (VLE)
    250 knots
  15. Landing Gear Retraction Speed (VLOR)
    200 knots
  16. Flap Placard Speeds (VFE)




    • 9o   -  250 knots
    • 18o  -  200 knots
    • 22o  - 200 knots
    • 45o  - 145 knots*

    *Momentary airspeed excursions that are due to wind gusts or turbulence are allowed up to 155 knots with no crew or mx action required

    *Steady state operation over 145 knots is not allowed and must be entered into the AML
  17. American Eagle V1 speeds are always higher than?
    VMCG (Minimum Control speed on the Ground)

    Minimum calibrated airspeed on the ground at which the takeoff can be continued using aerodynamic controls along with one engine failed and the remaining engine at takeoff thrust.
  18. American Eagle VR speeds are always higher than?
    VMCA (Minimum Control speed in the Air)

    Minimum calibrated airspeed at which, when one engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is possible to recover control of the aircraft with that engine still inoperative, and maintain straight flight either with zero yaw, or with an angle of bank of not more than 5 degrees with the remaining engine at takeoff thrust. May not exceed 1.2 Vs. The value presented represents the most critical combination of thrust, weight, and center of gravity.
  19. American Eagle VREF speeds are always higher than?
    VMCL (Minimum Control Speed in the Landing Configuration)
  20. Max Wiper Operating Speed
    160 knots
  21. Max Operating Altitude
    37,000 ft.
  22. Min Takeoff and Landing Pressure Altitude
    -1,000 ft.
  23. Max Takeoff and Landing Pressure Altitude
    8,000 ft.
  24. Min Takeoff and Landing Temperature?
    -40 oC SAT

    *In the event of a landing below -40 oC SAT, the aircraft may not takeoff without further maintenance inspection
  25. TAT in cruise flight above 25,000 ft. is limited to ...?

    *Momentary deviations up to -50oC do not require mx action.
  26. Maximum Takeoff and Landing Temperature at -1,000 ft. Pressure Altitude
  27. Maximum Takeoff and Landing Temperature at 8,000 ft. Pressure Altitude
  28. Minimum SAT at FL370?

    (fuel could freeze)
  29. Icing conditions on the ground and for takeoff
    OAT is 10 oC or below AND visible moisture in any form is present (such as clouds, fog w/ vis 1 mile or less, rain, snow, sleet, ice crystals)

    OAT is 10 oC or below when operating on ramps, taxiways or runways where surface snow, ice, standing water or slush may be ingested by the engines, or freeze on the engines, nacelles, or engine sensor probes
  30. When should the Anti-icing System be turned on on the ground?
    On the ground, do not rely on visual icing evidence or ice detector actuation to turn on the Anti-icing System. Use the temperature and visual moisture criteria as specified above. Delaying the use of the Anti-icing System until ice build-up is visible from the cockpit may result in ice ingestion and possible engine damage or flameout.
  31. Icing conditions in flight
    TAT (Total Air Temperature) is 10 oC or below AND visible moisture in any form is present
  32. Who is responsible for activation of the Anti-ice System?
    Notwithstanding ice detector monitoring, the crew remains responsible for monitoring potential icing conditions and for manual activation of the Ice Protection System if icing conditions are present (known icing) and the Ice Detection System is not activating the Ice Protection System.
  33. Min Temperature for Manual Anti-icing Operation

    NOTE:  Use Outside Air Temperature (OAT) on the ground or for takeoff. Use Total Air Temperature (TAT) for operations in flight.
  34. Max Temperature for Manual Anti-icing Operation

    NOTE:  Use Outside Air Temperature (OAT) on the ground or for takeoff. Use Total Air Temperature (TAT) for operations in flight.
  35. Temperature limits for automatic Anti-icing System operation?
    There is no temp limitation for automatic Anti-icing System operation.
  36. Takeoff with airframe contaminants is prohibited when...
    ...frost, snow, ice or slush is adhering to the wings, control surfaces, stabilizers, pitot static ports or AOA vanes.

    *Note: A 1/8th inch frost layer is permitted on the underwing surfaces. Frost is not permitted on the lower or upper surface of the horizontal stabilizer or the upper surface of the wing.
  37. A runway is considered "contaminated" when...
    ...more than 25% of the required field length, within the width being used, is covered by:

    • More than 1/8th inch (3 mm.) of:
    •    standing water
    •    slush or 
    •    wet snow
    • More than 3/4 inches (19 mm.) of dry snow
    • Compacted snow
    • Ice

    Captain determines that a runway is contaminated - then Automated Performance Analyst procedures must be used.
  38. A pre-takeoff tactile check should be performed whenever...
    ...the outside temperature is 5oC or below and:

    • There is visible moisture; or
    • Water is present on the wing; or
    • The difference between the dew point and the outside air temperature is 3oC or less; or
    • The atmospheric conditions have been conducive to frost formation

    Note: If these conditions are anticipated to occur prior to takeoff, this procedure shall be accomplished during the preflight inspection
  39. Autopilot Minimum Engagement Height
    500 ft.
  40. Autopilot Minimum Disengagement Altitude?
    • Instrument Approach (APR or NAV Mode) - MDA/DA/DH
    • Visual Approach (HDG Mode) - TPA (1,500 ft. AFL)

    • Single Engine Go-Around with autopilot engaged is prohibited
    • Approach mode selection during localizer capture is allowed only when aircraft is inbound
    • CAT I ILS Coupled go-around height loss may be 95 ft.

    Note: Visual approaches may be conducted in NAV mode when authorized by an Envoy Special Visual Approach Procedure in FM-2. Autopilot must be disconnected below 1500' AFL.
  41. CAT II ILS Limitations
    • Minimum Decision Height: 100 ft.
    • CAT II ILS Coupled go-around height loss may be 50 ft.
    • Minimum Altitude during a coupled CAT II ILS: 80 ft.
    • Max tailwind: 10 knots
    • Max crosswind: 15 knots

    • CAT II Approach and landing must be performed with flaps 22o
    • All CAT II Approaches must be flown coupled to the Autopilot to DH
    • EICAS Version 20.5 will not display the green CAT 2 annunciator when the RA is set to 80 ft. If the approach plate shows RA 80', round the RA up to 85'.
  42. Yaw Damper operation is not authorized for:
    • Takeoff to 500 ft. AFL
    • Landing
  43. APU Max operational altitude?
    37,000 ft.
  44. APU Max altitude for start?
    30,000 ft.
  45. APU Start EGT Limit?
  46. APU Continuous EGT Limit?

    *May be exceeded up to 717oC for five minutes maximum
  47. APU Rotor Speed Limit?

    *The APU will automatically shut down at 104% Rotor Speed
  48. APU Minimum Start Temp?
  49. Minimum battery temperature for APU start?

    There is no minimum battery temperature when starting the APU via external power.
  50. APU Starter Limits
    Cooling Period:

    • Between 3 consecutive attempts: 1 min. OFF
    • Between 2 series of 3 consecutive attempts: 30 min. OFF
  51. AHRS initialization...
    The aircraft must not be moved when the AHRS is in the initialization mode until all attitude and heading information presented on the PFD is displayed.

    *For AH-900 AHRS, alignment will complete only after a valid aircraft present position is received.
  52. Does the EGPWS database account for manmade obstructions?
    Not currently.
  53. The Terrain Awareness Alerting and Display must be inhibited by selecting TERR/OVRD during the following conditions:
    • FMS in dead reckoning mode (if the FMS is restored after a period of inadequacy, the Terrain Awareness may be enabled by pressing again the TERR/OVRD button)
    • Before takeoff or within 15 NM of approach or landing at an airport with longest runway less than 3,500 ft. in length
    • Before takeoff or within 15 NM of approach or landing at an airport with no published Instrument Approach Procedure
    • The airport is not included in the Honeywell database
    • GPS 1 and 2 FAIL
  54. DC Generators - Max Load on Main Gen
    400 A
  55. APU Generator - Max loads
    • Up to 30,000 ft. - 400 A
    • Above 30,000 ft. - 300 A
  56. Main Batteries - Max Temp?
  57. EMB 140 must have ATTCS armed for takeoffs when using what modes?
    T/O and ALT T/O-1
  58. The EMB 145 must have ATTCS armed for takeoff using what mode?
    ALT T/O-1
  59. Engine cool down after landing or high power runs
    Run each engine for a minimum of one minute at idle or taxi thrust before shutdown
  60. Engine Oil Level
    The minimum dispatch oil quantity is eight quarts before Engine Start or seven quarts after Engine Start
  61. Engine Warm Up Prior to Takeoff
    The engines must be allowed to run at low thrust to stabilize engine temperatures before takeoff thrust is selected. Run the engine at idle or taxi thrust a minimum of four minutes for cold engines and two minutes for warm engines. An engine is considered cold if it has been shutdown for more than 90 minutes.

    Prior to increasing N2 above 83% the engine oil temperature must be a minimum of 40oC. In lieu of this minimum oil temperature limit, it is acceptable to run the engine for at least 8 minutes and ensure the oil temperature is in the green range prior to advancing the Thrust Levers for takeoff.
  62. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    T/O-1 [A1]
    T/O RSV [A1/3]
    (5 min. limit)

    ITT limit?
    948 oC
  63. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    T/O-1 [A1/3]
    T/O [A1/3]
    (5 min. limit)

    ITT limit?
    929 oC
  64. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    ALT T/O-1
    (5 min. limit)

    ITT limit?
    917 oC
  65. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    Max Continuous

    ITT limit?
    901 oC
  66. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    Engine Start ITT limit?
    800 oC
  67. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    N1 (%) max?
  68. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    N2(%) min-max
    57.0 - 102.4
  69. Rolls Royce AE 3007 A1, A1/3 Operating Limits

    Engines may operate in the (oil pressure) amber range...?
    ...up to 115 psi for five minutes in all thrust modes.

    ...above 115 psi up to 155 psi for two minutes.

    • Total time in amber range may not exceed five minutes.
    • Operation in red range is not authorized, for any aircraft.
    • Any exceedance must be monitored and logged in the AML by the crew.
  70. Oil pressure limit may be exceeded during starts if oil temperature is below ___?

    *Engines must then remain at idle until the oil pressure is in the green range.
  71. Minimum oil pressure below 88% N2?
    Minimum oil pressure at or above 88% N2?
    • 34 psi
    • 50 psi

    However, operation between 34 and 50 psi is permitted during takeoff and go-around phases
  72. Minimum oil temperature for starting?
    -40 oC
  73. Minimum oil temperature for takeoff?
    40 oC

    If oil temp is less than 40 oC perform Engine Warm Up Prior to Takeoff Procedures located in this section.
  74. N1 and N2 Vibration limits?
    Green Range...

    • May be exceeded to top of amber range for 5 minutes during takeoff or go-around phases
    • Or 10 seconds during remaining flight phases

    Continuous operation with engine vibration in amber range is not recommended

    If vibration returns to the green range within 5 minutes, the flight may continue, but causes should be investigated before the next flight

    Vibration during any phase of flight in amber range up to 1.5 IPS for less than 30 seconds does not require mx action
  75. Starter limits on the Ground?
    Starting or Dry Motoring: up to 5 min. ON, 5 min. OFF


    • First to Fourth Cycles: 1 min. ON, 1 min. OFF
    • Following Cycles: 1 min. ON, 5 min. OFF
  76. Starter Limits In Flight
    Max continuous operation time: 5 min ON

    No cool down time is required should an in-flight start be reattempted.
  77. Max altitude for flap extension?
    20,000 ft. MSL
  78. Authorized flap configurations for takeoff in the EMB 140?
    9o and 18o
  79. Authorized flap configurations for takeoff in the EMB 145?
    9o or 22o
  80. Max airspeed after takeoff/during climb without re-trimming?
    160 KIAS
  81. Instrument Markings
    • Min or Max limits - RED
    • Caution, temporary, or idle range - AMBER
    • Normal operating range - GREEN
    • Advisory - BLUE
  82. Maximum duration of ISIS (Integrated Standby Instrument System) when operating on batteries only?
    40 minutes

    Can be extended to 45 minutes if the Pitot 3 Sensor Heating Button is turned OFF when not operating in Icing Conditions
  83. When is the flight crew required to verify predictive RAIM at the destination?
    When flying to an airport where GPS stand-alone is the intended and only suitable approach.

    Flight crew is required to verify that the predictive RAIM at the destination ETA +/- 15 minutes for all values are within the approach criteria.
  84. FMS limitation for alternate airports?
    • GPS based instrument approach procedures may be planned for use at the destination OR alternate airports, but NOT for BOTH.
    • When the approach at the destination is based on GPS and an alternate airport is required, it must be served by an approach other than GPS. The nav-aid must be operational and the aircraft must have operational equipment capable of using that nav-aid.
  85. Acceptable Fuels?
    • Jet A
    • Jet A-1
    • JP8
    • QAV1 (Brazilian specification)
  86. If fuel does not contain an icing inhibitor, the temperature of the fuel leaving the FCOC must be above?
  87. Maximum fuel imbalance?
    800 lb.
  88. X-Feed shall be OFF during...
    Takeoff and landing during NORMAL operations
  89. Total usable fuel? (@ fuel density of 6.7 lb./gal.)
    11,100 lb.

    (78 lb. unusable fuel)

    Note: All indicated fuel is usable
  90. What happens to the unusable fuel quantity when any electric fuel booster pump is inoperative?
    The unusable fuel quantity in the associated wing increases by 365 lbs. (730 lbs. if both wings are affected) and should be added to the total release fuel.
  91. Min-Max Fuel Tank Temperatures?
    -40oC to 52oC
  92. Pressure for re-fueling?
    35-50 psi
  93. Holding configuration?
    • Landing Gear: UP
    • Flaps: UP
    • Minimum Airspeed (icing conditions only): 200 KIAS

    • *See EMB QRH Holding Tables for Anti-Ice ON
    • *For Anti-Ice OFF - speeds less than 200 knots and thus maximum endurance and greater fuel savings
  94. Revenue flights above ____ must comply with ozone concentration requirements specified in the Systems section.
  95. Do not operate weather radar during:
    • Refueling
    • Near fuel spills
    • Near people

    STBY position (not transmitting) is not considered operating.
  96. Thrust reversers are intended for use during...?
    • Rejected takeoff or landing only.
    • After initiating reverse thrust, a full stop MUST be made.
  97. MAXIMUM reverse thrust MUST be used:
    • Whenever its use will prevent a runway excursion.
    • When landing on runways with "Medium" or "Poor" braking action, unless the appropriate landing distance penalty (flip cards) is applied.
  98. IDLE reverse MAY be used on:
    • Dry runways 9,000 ft. or shorter usable length (LDA)
    • Non-dry runways where braking action is "Good"
  99. Thrust reverser use is PROHIBITED for:
    • Power-back operations
    • Taxi operations
    • Thrust levers stabilized in any intermediate position between IDLE reverse and MAXIMUM reverse
  100. Circling approaches are not authorized when the weather is...
    ...less than 1000 ft. ceiling and 3 miles visibility
  101. Max Demonstrated Crosswind for takeoff and landing?
    30 kts.
  102. Flight Maneuvering Load Acceleration Limits

    Flaps up?
    Flaps down?
    • Flaps up... +2.50g to -1.0g
    • Flaps down... +2.0g to 0g
  103. Maximum tailwind component for takeoff and landing?
    10 kts.
  104. Runway slope limits for takeoff and landing?
    -2% to +2%
  105. EMB 140 and 145 Cargo C4 limit?
    2646 lbs
  106. Cargo C1
    - Coat Rod Limit?
    - Floor Limit?
    • 40 lbs. on the coat rod
    • 100 lbs. on the floor
  107. The horizontal cargo net (in Cargo Compartment C4) must be installed for any weight in excess of?
    2,182 lbs.
Card Set
Envoy EMB Limitations (3-12-19)
EMB 14/140 Limitations: Envoy (American Eagle)