Listening to the sounds within the body by using a stethoscope.
A flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. In the cardiovascular system used to place dye into blood vessels so they may be visualized on x-rays.
Area of tissue within an organ that undergoes necrosis (death) following the loss of blood supply.
Localized and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to an obstruction of the circulation
An abnormal heart sound as a soft blowing sound or a harsh click. They may be soft and heard only with a stethoscope, or so loud they can be heard several feet away.
the sudden drop in blood pressure a person experiences when standing up suddenly
pounding, racing heartbeats
Gummy mass of microorganisms that grows on the crowns of teeth and spreads along the roots. It is colorless and transparent.
Return of fluids and solids from the stomach into the mouth. Similar to emesis but without the force
Instrument for measuring blood pressure. Also referred to as a blood pressure cuff.
A stainless steel tube placed within a blood vessel or a duct to widen the lumen
Instrument for listening to body sounds, such as the chest, heart, or intestines.
Severe chest pain with a sensation of constriction around the heart. Caused by a deficiency of oxygen to the heart muscle.
Irregularity in the heartbeat or action.
Occurs when the electrical impulse is blocked from travelling down the bundle of His or bundle branches. Results in the ventricles beating at a different rate than the atria.
bundle branch block (BBB)
aka heart block
complete stopping of heart activity
General term for a disease of the myocardium that may be caused by alcohol, abuse, parasites, viral infection, and congestive heart failure.
Defect, present at birth, in the wall separating two chambers of the heart. Results in a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood being carried to the surrounding tissues. There can be an atrial septal defect (ASD) and a ventricular septal defect (VSD).
congenital septal defect (CSD)
pathological condition of the heart in which there is a reduced outflow of blood from the left side of the heart. Results in weakness, breathlessness, and edema.
congestive heart failure (CHF)
Insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle due to an obstruction of one or more coronary arteries; may be caused by atherosclerosis and may cause angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
Inflammation of the inner lining layer of the heart. May be due to microorganisms or to an abnormal immunological response.
Abnormal quivering or contractions of heart fibers. When this occurs within the fibers of the ventricle of the heart, arrest and death can occur. Emergency equipment to defibrillate, or convert the heart to a normal beat, is necessary.
An arrhythmia in which the atria beat too rapidly, but in a regular pattern.
The cusps or flaps of the heart valve are too loose and fail to shut tightly, allowing blood to flow backwards through the valve when the heart chamber contracts. Most commonly occurs in the mitral valve, but may affect any of the heart valves.
heart valve prolapse
The cusps or flaps of the heart valve are too stiff. Therefore, they are unable to open fully, making it difficult for blood to flow through, or to shut tightly, allowing blood to flow backwards. This condition may affect any of the heart valves.
heart valve stenosis
Condition caused by the partial or complete occlusion or closing of one or more of the coronary arteries. Symptoms include severe chest pain or heavy pressure in the middle of the chest. A delay in treatment could result in death
myocardial infarction (MI)
Inflammation of heart muscle.
Inflammatory process or disease of the pericardium
combination of four congenital anomalies: pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular septal defect, abnormal blood supply to the aorta, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Needs immediate surgery to correct.
tetralogy of Fallot
Weakness in the wall of an artery that results in localized widening of the artery.
Condition with thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries.
Caused by the formation of yellowish plaques of cholesterol buildup on the inner walls of the arteries.
(the most common form of arteriosclerosis.)
Severe congenital narrowing of the aorta.
coarctation of the aorta
Obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot that moves from another area.
(aka traveling clot)
Varicose veins in the rectum.
Congenital heart anomaly in which the opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta fails to close at birth. This condition requires surgery.
patient ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Any abnormal condition affecting blood vessels outside the heart; symptoms may include pain, pallor, numbness, and loss of circulation and pulses.
peripheral vascular disease
Inflammation of many arteries.
Periodic ischemic attacks affecting the extremities of the body, especially the fingers, toes, ears, and nose. The affected extremities become cyanotic and very painful. These attacks are brought on by arterial constriction due to extreme cold or emotional stress.
Inflammation of a vein that results in the formation of blood clots within the vein.