Human Physiology

  1. Group of cells arrange themselves into _____.
    - tissues
  2. Various tissues work together to form ______
    • - organs.
    • - Ex: skin, liver, hear, gallbladder, and intestines.
  3. Organs work together to form __________.
    - organ systems
  4. Muscular system
    • - allows movement and locomotion.
    • - the muscular system helps you make body movements and supports the body in its activities.
  5. Skeletal muscles
    • - help move the bones.
    • - they are attached to the bone by bands of tissue called tendons.
    • - it work in pairs; when one muscle of the the pair contracts. the other muscle relaxes.
  6. Cardiac muscle
    - found in the heart.
  7. Smooth muscles
    - found in some of your internal organs, such as your intestines and bladder.
  8. Skeletal system
    • - is a living system that provides shape and support to your body.
    • - it supports and protects the body and body parts, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
  9. Exoskeleton
    • - the skeleton might be on the outside.
    • - Ex: grasshopper (in lower animal)
  10. Vertebrates have developed an internal mineralized _______
    • - endoskeleton.
    • - muscles are on the outside of the endoskeleton.
  11. Musculoskeletal
    - the skeleton and muscles functions together.
  12. 2 important components of bone: _______ (make bone hard)
    - calcium and phosphorus.
  13. Osteoblasts
    - are bone-forming cells.
  14. Joints
    - places where your bones come together
  15. Ligament
    - joints are held together by bands of tissue.
  16. Three major types of joints:
    • - ball and socket joints, like shoulder and hip.
    • - pivot joints, like the elbow.
    • - hinge joints, like the knee.
  17. Integument system
    • - or skin, is your outermost protective layer.
    • - the skin is the largest organ in your body.
  18. Skin helps to regulate your body temperature by expanding or constricting blood vessels and through the operation of the ________
    - sweat glands.
  19. The skin have three layers:
    • - epidermis is the outer, thinner layer of skin.
    • - the next layer is the dermis, containing blood vessels, nerves, muscles, oil and sweat glands.
    • - underneath the dermis is a layer of fat.
  20. Melanin
    • - skin gets it color from melanin.
    • - people with different color skin have different amounts of melanin.
    • - the darker the skin, the more melanin the skin has.
  21. Differences between breathing and respiration:
    • - breathing is the physical action of moving the diaphragm up and down, which allows air to enter our lungs.
    • - respiration is how our bodies use the oxygen from the air we inhale and eliminate the carbon dioxide when we exhale.
  22. Peristalsis
    • - is waves of muscle contractions.
    • - the stomach mixes the food by a process called peristalsis.
  23. Esophagus
    - is a long tube with muscles that contract and move the food to the stomach.
  24. Circulatory system
    • - is composed of vessels and muscles that control the flow of blood around body.
    • - the process of blood around the body is called circulation.
  25. The main components of the circulatory system:
    - heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins.
  26. There are three types of circulation:
    • - coronary circulation
    • - pulmonary circulation
    • - systemic circulation
  27. Coronary circulation
    • - the circulation of blood within the heart itself by the coronary veins and arteries.
    • - if this circulation is blocked, it could result in a hear attack.
  28. Pulmonary circulation
    - flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back.
  29. Systemic circulation
    - is the blood (with oxygen) moving through your body to your important organs.
  30. Red blood cells
    • - are shaped like disks and contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    • - it does have a nucleus.
  31. White blood cells
    - cell fight bacteria, viruses, and other intruders in your body.
  32. Platelets
    • - cell frgments
    • - are carried along with the red and white blood cells.
    • - it plug holes in small blood vessels to stop bleeding.
  33. There are four different blood types:
    • - A, B, AB, and O.
    • - people with type O blood are called universal donors.
    • - people with AB are called universal receivers.
  34. Lymphatic System
    • - is composed of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and certain organs.
    • - the system absorbs excess fluids from the body and return them to the bloodstream.
  35. There are three organs that are part of the lymphatic system:
    - tonsils, the thymus, and the spleen. (page 139)
  36. Lymphocytes
    - which are a type of white blood cell that tries to destroy disease-causing organisms.
  37. The immune system defends our bodies from invading microorganisms and viruses called _______
    - pathogens.
  38. First-line of defense (immune system) include:
    - your skin and your respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems.
  39. Antigens
    - molecules that foreign to your body.
  40. Special T cells stimulate other lymphocytes called B cells to form _______
    • - antibodies.
    • - an antibodies are made in response to a specific antigen.
  41. Antibiotics
    - can cure some bacterial disease, but not viral diseases.
  42. Second-line defense (immune system)
    - are specifically fight a disease.
  43. Excretory system
    • - remove waste.
    • - it removes undigested material through the digestive system by way of the large intestine.
    • - it removes waste gases through the circulatory and respiratory systems.
    • -it removes salts through the skin when we sweat.
    • - it removes excess water and waste through the urinary system.
  44. Urinary system
    - responsible for maintaining the fluid levels in our bodies.
  45. Kidneys
    - they are two bean-shaped organs that are responsible for filtering blood that contains waste from the cells.
  46. Nervous system
    - coordinates and control such actions as memory, learning, and conscious thought.
  47. Brain
    • - largest organ in the nervous system.
    • - brain have three major parts: cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.
  48. Cerebrum
    - largest part of the brain; it takes care of our thinking processes.
  49. The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the _______.
    - cortex.
  50. Cerebellum
    • - the second-largest part of he brain.
    • - its job is to coordinate our muscle movements and maintain normal muscle tome and posture.
    • - Ex: balance while walking, riding a bike...
  51. The brain stem is closest to the _______
    - spinal cord.
  52. The brain stem have three parts:
    • - midbrain
    • - pon
    • - medulla
  53. Midbrain and Pon
    - coordination various parts of the brain so that it acts together.
  54. Medulla
    - coordinated our heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and the reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and hiccuping.
  55. Hypothalamus
    • - regulates thirst, hunger, body temperatures, water balance, and blood pressure.
    • - links the nervous system to the endocrine system.
  56. the brain and the spinal cord make up the ________
    - central nervous system.
  57. Peripheral nervous system
    • - the nerves outside the central nervous system.
    • - it has two parts: somatic system and the autonomic system.
  58. Somatic system
    - control voluntary movements, like walking, running, and swiveling your hip.
  59. Autonomic system
    - controls involuntary movements, such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion...
  60. Endocrine glands
    - secrete hormones that regulate body metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
  61. Pituitary gland
    • - stimulates the growth of muscles and bones
    • - stimulates the growth of reproductive organs.
    • - stimulates the thyroid gland.
    • - stimulates the secretion of milk.
    • - helps the kidneys to absorb water.
    • - stimulates the adrenal cortex.
  62. Thyroid gland
    - regulates metabolism.
  63. Parathyroid
    - increases the concentration of calcium in the blood.
  64. Adrenal cortex gland
    - helps the kidneys absorb water and sodium.
  65. Adrenal medulla cortex
    - get the body ready for strenuous activity by increasing the concentration of blood sugar.
  66. Pancreas
    - regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.
  67. Nearsighted
    • - people have trouble seeing distant objects.
    • - can have their vision corrected with a concave lens.
  68. Farsighted
    • - people have trouble seeing things that are close up.
    • - their vision corrected with a convex lens.
  69. Alleles
    • - different forms of a gene.
    • - Ex: the allele from your mother might be for blond hair and the allele for your father might be for black hair.
    • - some alleles are dominant and some are recessive.
    • - the dominant allele will dtermine what traits actually become part of you.
  70. Homozygous
    - an organism that has two allele that are the same such BB or bb
  71. Heterozygous
    - an organism that has one allele that is dominant and one that is recessive, such as Bb.
  72. Punnett square
    - a device to determine the probability that an offspring will have a certain characteristic.
  73. There are six types of nutrients:
    • - proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins (organic).
    • - minerals and water (inorganic)
    • - organic means the substance contains carbon.
  74. Vitamin B
    - helps growth, use of carbohydrates, red blood cell production, and development of a healthy nervous system.
  75. Vitamin A
    - helps in growth, eyesight, and healthy skin.
  76. Vitamin E
    - helps in the formation of cell membranes.
  77. Vitamin C
    - helps in growth, good bones and teeth, and wound healing.
  78. Vitamin D
    - helps in absorption of calcium and phosphorus in bone and teeth.
  79. Vitamin K
    - helps with the clotting of blood and wound healing.
  80. Calcium (mineral)
    - creates strong bones and teeth, good muscle, and nerve activity.
  81. Phosphorus (mineral)
    - creates strong bones and teeth, regulates contraction of muscles.
  82. Potassium (mineral)
    - regulates water balance in cells, muscle contraction, nerve impulsive conduction.
  83. Sodium (mineral)
    - regulates fluid balance in tissues, nerve impulsive conduction.
  84. Iron (mineral)
    - transports oxygen in red blood cells.
  85. Iodine
    - controls thyroid activity, metabolic stimulation.
Card Set
Human Physiology
Human Physiology terminology for ASVAB