Medical Flash Cards 3

  1. What is agitated delirium?
    A condition of disorientation, confusion, and possible hallucinations coupled with purposeless, restless physical activity.
  2. What is peristalsis?
    Waves of circular contraction and relaxation of the intestines or other tubular structure to propel the content forward.
  3. What is the cardiac sphincter?
    The sphincter located at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach.
  4. What is the pyloric sphincter?
    The doorway at the inferior portion of the stomach.
  5. What is chyme?
    The material that exits the stomach.
  6. Name the solid organs in the abd.
    •  Liver
    • Spleen
    • Pancreas
    • Kidneys
    • Ovaries (Female)
  7. Name the Hollow organs in the abd.
    • Gallbladder
    • Stomach
    • Small and large intestine
    • Urinary bladder
  8. What is the duodenum?
    The first part of the small intestine.  This is where the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder connect to the digestive system.
  9. The _____ creates bile, which is stored in the _____.
    Liver, Gallbladder
  10. What is bile?
    Enzymes created in the liver used to help break down fats.
  11. How long is the small intestine?
  12. Name the three parts of the small intestine.
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  13. What is the last part of the upper GI tract?
  14. What is the first part of the lower GI tract?
  15. How long is the large intestine?
  16. Name the five parts of the large intestine.
    • Ascending colon
    • Transverse colon
    • Descending colon
    • Sigmoid colon
    • Rectum
  17. When chyme reaches the large intestine, it becomes _____.
  18. What is the cecum?
    The valve between the ileum and the first portion of the large intestine.
  19. 90% of nutrients are absorbed in the _____.
    Small intestine
  20. What is the primary role of the large intestine?
    To complete the reabsorption of water.
  21. The digestion process takes ___ to ___ hrs.
    8 - 72
  22. The average person has ___ bowel movements per day to one every ___ days.
    3, 3
  23. The kidneys filter ___ L of blood each day.
  24. What are the kidneys?
    Solid, bean shaped organs located in the retroperitoneal space that filter and excrete body wastes in the form of urine.
  25. What is urine?
    Liquid waste products filtered out of the body by the urinary system.
  26. What is the urinary bladder?
    A hollow, muscular sac in the midline of the lower abdominal area that stores urine until it is released from the body.
  27. What are the ureters?
    A pair of thick-walled, hollow tubes that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
  28. What is the urethra?
    A hollow, tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder, passing it out of the body.
  29. What is the hilus?  (in context with the kidneys)
    The medial, concave side of the kidney where the ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit the kidney.
  30. What is the renal fascia?
    Dense, fibrous tissue that anchors the kidney to the abdominal wall.
  31. What is acute abdomen?
    A sudden onset of abdominal pain.
  32. What is the peritoneum?
    The membrane lining the abdominal cavity (parietal peritoneum) and covering the abdominal organs (visceral peritoneum). 
  33. What is peritonitis?
    Inflammation of the peritoneum.
  34. What are the major symptoms of peritonitis?
    Abdominal tenderness and distention
  35. What is colic?
    Acute, intermittent, cramping abdominal pain.
  36. What is referred pain?
    Pain felt in an area of the body other than the area where the cause of the pain is located.
  37. What is ileus?
    Paralysis of the bowel that stops contractions that move material through the intestine.
  38. What is emesis?
  39. What is diverticulitis?
    Inflammation of small pockets in the colon.
  40. What is cholecystitis?
    Inflammation of the gallbladder.
  41. What is Kerr's Sign?
    Referred pain to the left shoulder caused by pain in the spleen.
  42. What is appendicitis?
    Inflammation of the appendix.
  43. RLQ Pain (direct)
    Pain around the umbilicus (referred)
  44. RUQ pain (direct)
    Right shoulder pain (referred)
  45. Upper midabdominal or upper back pain
    Duodenal ulcer
  46. LLQ pain
  47. Low back pain
    RLQ pain
  48. What is a AAA
    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
  49. Lower midabdomen (retropubic) pain
  50. What is cystitis?
    Inflammation of the urinary bladder
  51. Costovertebral Angle pain
  52. What is pyelonephritis?
    Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis.
  53. Right of left flank pain that radiates to the groin.
    Kidney stone
  54. Pain in both lower quadrants.
  55. Upper abdominal pain (both quadrants)
    Back pain
  56. What are ulcers?
    Abrasions of the stomach or small intestine.
  57. Name the three causes of peptic ulcers.
    • Helicobacter pylori
    • Chronic use od NSAIDs
    • ETOH and smoking
  58. Peptic ulcers tend to affect what population the most?
  59. Describe the pain generally experienced in a pt. with a peptic ulcer.
    A burning or gnawing pain
  60. What is melena?
    Black, tarry stool
  61. What is pancreatitis?
    Inflammation of the pancreas
  62. What is rebound tenderness?
    • Pain that occurs when pressure is removed rather that applied.
    • May not be seen in pregnant pt.
  63. What is Mcburney's Point?
    2/3 the way between the umbilicus and the right hip.
  64. Name the three causes of upper GI bleeds.
    • Esophagitis
    • Esophageal Varices
    • Mallory Weis Syndrome
  65. Name the three causes of lower GI bleeds.
    • Gastroenteritis
    • Diverticulitis
    • Hemorrhoids
  66. What is esophagitis?
    Inflammation of the lining of the esophagus.
  67. What is esophageal varices?
    A condition in which the amount of pressure within the blood vessels surrounding the esophagus increases, causing blood to back up into the portal vessels.
  68. What is the main cause of HTN in industrialized countries?
  69. What is the main cause of HTN in developing countries?
    Viral Hepatitis
  70. What is Mallory Weiss syndrome?
    A condition in which there is a tear in the junction between the esophagus and the stomach.
  71. What are the primary risk factors for Mallory Weiss syndrome?
    • Alcoholism
    • Eating disorder
  72. What is the principle symptom of Mallory Weiss syndrome?
  73. What is gastroenteritis?
    A family of conditions resulting in diarrhea and N/V.
  74. What is the principle symptom of gastroenteritis?
  75. What are hemorrhoids?
    Swelling and inflammation of the blood vessels surrounding the rectum.
  76. What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)?
    An infection in the urinary tract which occurs when bacteria enters the urethra and grows.
  77. Untreated UTIs can lead to _____.
  78. What is dysuria?
    Difficulty urinating
  79. What is hematuria?
    Blood in the urine
  80. What is polyuria?
    Frequent urination
  81. What is oliguria?
    Urine output of less than 500 mL per day.
  82. What is anuria?
    A complete stop in the production of urine.
  83. What is visceral discomfort?
    Crampy, aching pain deep within the body, the source is usually difficult to pinpoint.
  84. What are kidney stones?
    Solid crystalline masses formed in the kidney, resulting from an excess of insoluble salts or uric acid.
  85. What are the most common type of kidney stones?
    Calcium stones
  86. What is acute renal failure (ARF)?
    A sudden decrease in filtration through the kidneys.
  87. What is chronic renal failure (CRF)?
    Progressive and irreversible inadequate kidney function as a result of permanent loss of nephrons.
  88. What are nephrons?
    The structural and functional units of the kidney that forms urine.
  89. What is uremic frost?
    • A powdery buildup of uric acid, especially on the face.
    • Seen in pt. with CRF
  90. What is mittelschmerz?
    Lower abdominal pain that is related to the normal menstrual cycle, associated with the release of an egg from the ovary, occurring in the middle of the menstrual cycle between menstrual periods.
  91. What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?
    An infection of the fallopian tubes and the surrounding tissues of the pelvis.
  92. What is a ectopic pregnancy?
    A fertilized egg has come to lie in an area outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube.
  93. What is an aneurysm?
    Swelling or enlargement of a part of an artery, resulting from weakening of the arterial wall.
  94. What is a hernia?
    A protrusion of an organ or tissue through a hole in the body wall covering its normal site.
  95. What is a reducible hernia?
    A mass that can be pushed back into the body cavity.
  96. What is a incarcerated hernia?
    A mass that cannot be pushed back into the body.
  97. What is strangulation?
    Complete obstruction of blood circulation in a given organ as a result of compression or entrapment.
  98. What is orthostatic V/s?
    • Assessing v/s in two different pt. positions to determine the degree of hypotension.
    • AKA tilt test
  99. What is orthostatic hypotension?
    A drop in SBP when moving from lying or sitting to a standing position.
  100. What is guarding?
    Involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) of the abdominal wall.
Card Set
Medical Flash Cards 3
NREMT Medical Study