1. What is the function of a circulatory system?
    to provide the body with oxygen, nutrients, remove wastes and CO2
  2. Why do we have a circulatory system?
    all cells in the body need access to oxygen, etc
  3. What is an open circulatory system?
    heart beats, fluid moves into some large vessels, and from there into the body ex)insects, many arthropods
  4. what is an closed circulatory system?
    blood is always confined to blood vesselsĀ  ex) earthworms, vertebrates
  5. What does the atrium do?
    receives blood from the body, then moves blood to ventricle
  6. What does the ventricle?
    pumps blood out of the heart
  7. What does the arteries do?
    carry the blood to other parts of the body
  8. What does the arterioles?
    small vessles that give rise to capillaries
  9. What do capillaries do?
    infiltrate every organ and tissue in the body
  10. What are venules?
    coverge into larger veins
  11. Whatare veins?
    return blood to heart
  12. What is the flow of blood through the adult mammal?
    right ventricle----lungs---left atrium---left ventricle---body---right atrium---right ventricle
  13. What is the cardiac cycle?
    what happens from one heart contracton to the next
  14. What is heart rate
    number of times heart beats in one minute
  15. What is stroke volume?
    amount of blood pumped by left ventricle with one beat
  16. What is cardiac output?
    amount of blood pumped by left ventricle
  17. What is systole?
    contraction phase
  18. What is diastole?
    relaxtion phase
  19. What causes the heart sounds?
    the heart valves closing
  20. What coordinates cardiac muscle cells?
    SA nodes
  21. What does the SA node do?
    will release the signal to beat
  22. What is the AV node?
    dpecialized muscle fibers transmit signal to ventricles which then contract
  23. What is the EKG or ECG
  24. What can a EKG show?
    data about heart health
  25. What do intercalated disks do?
    allow rapid dissemination of electrical stimulus and so the atria contract
  26. Why can a defibulator be useful?
    when blood is not pumped and heart needs to be "reset"
  27. What influences heart rate?
    hormones, body temperature, stimuli from nerves reaching the heart, condition
  28. Hormones
    epinephrine causes an increase in heart rate
  29. body temperature
    fever increases the heart rate
  30. condition
    if one is in excellent condition, heart rate is often much lower
  31. What is blood pressure?
    the force that blood exerts against the walls of your blood vessels
  32. What is systolic pressure?
    maximum pressure when ventricles contract
  33. What is diastolic pressure?
    minimum pressure when ventricles are relaxed
  34. How do we measure blood pressure?
    in the artery of the arm
  35. What units are used to measure blood pressure?
    mm HG
  36. Why do we have minimum blood pressure?
    elasticity of artery walls; peripheral resistance; go through sphygmomanometer; and as one moves away from the heart, blod pressure drops
  37. What hapens to blood pressure as we move inthe capillaries?
    blood pressure drops and smooths out
  38. What structure do veins have to help move blood back to the heart?
    valves, skeletal musces contracting, and some contraction by muslces in veins
  39. How can capillary beds be turned on and off?
    by muscles that control access to capillaries
  40. What is the advantage of capillary beds turning on and off?
    when exercising( diverts blood from digestive system); when hot ( shunts blood to skin); when suffering from blood loss ( shunts blood to vital systems)
  41. What is the danger from anaphylactic shock?
    many capillary beds may open at once causing a drastic fall in blood pressure
  42. What is the lymphatic system?
    involved in both innate and adaptive immunity
  43. What does the lympathic system do?
    returns fluid to the circulatory system
  44. What can happen if lymph vessels get blocked?
    can be painful and cause serious deformities
  45. What % of blood is living?
  46. What % of blood is non-living?
  47. What are components of blood?
    water, solvents, ions, proteins, nutrients
  48. How many molecules of hemoglobin in a red blood cell?
    250 million molecules
  49. What are stem cells?
    cells in bone marrow
  50. What can happen if the stem cells do not work correctly?
    overproduction of certain types
  51. What triggers blood clotting?
    if platelets encounter a rough surface, it becomes sticky and releases a substance that causes nearby platelets to become sticky as well
  52. What are the steps of blood clotting?
    if damage is more sever, this causes the release of substance that changes protherombin into thrombin, which will then change fibrinogen into fibrin which interweaves itself into the clot
  53. What are the risks for heart disease?
    diet, exercise, smoking, aging, family history, males
  54. Are these risk factors the same for hypertension?
    has many of the same risk factors, but the exact connections between some of these factors and hypertension are not understood very well
  55. Which factors can you control?
    diet/lack of exercise
  56. Which factors can you notĀ control?
    aging/family history(& disease)/being male
  57. What effects do these factors have?
    can lead directly to heart attack, stroke, or kidney disease
  58. What are the different kinds of heart disease discussed in class?
    congenital, arrythmias, heart valve, heart failure, heart attack
  59. What is a heart attack (what are coronary arteries)?
    offten caused by blockage of the coronary arteries; coronart arteries supply the heart muslce
  60. What is a stroke?
    blockages in the blood vessels to the brain
Card Set
circulation and gas exchange