The amplitude of a sound wave is its _______.
Loudness is a sensation related to ________. But they are not identical.
The frequency of a sound is the number of compressions per second and is measured by ____.
Pitch is the related aspect of ________.
The ______ frequency sounds, the _______ in pitch.
Structures of the Ear:
When sound waves strike the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE in, they vibrate 3 tiny bones:
- 1) Hammer
- 2) Anvil
- 3) Stirrup
that convert the sound waves into stronger vibrations in the fluid filled COCHLEA. Those vibrations displace the hair cells along the BASILIAR MEMBRANE in the COCHLEA.
This is the OUTER ear, that alter's reflection of sound waves....
This is the MIDDLE EAR that connects to the inner ear that contains 3 structures:
- ~ Malleus
- ~ Incus
- ~ Stapes
2 Pitch Perception Theories:
- 1) Place Theory
- 2) Frequency Theory
The inner ear contains a snail-shaped structure called the ______.
Auditory Receptors that lie btetween the BASILAR membrane of the cochlea on one side and the TECTORIAL membrane on the other are called ______
There are 2 pitch perception theories:
- 1: Place Theory
- 2: Frequency Theory
According to the _____ theory, the BASILAR MEMBRANE resembles the strings of a piano in that each area along the membrane is tuned to a specific frequency.
According to the _____ theory, the BASILAR MEMBRANE vibrates in synchrony with a sound, causing auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at the same frequency.
This is commonly called "Tone-Deafness" and is the impaired detection of frequency changes.
This is commonly known as "perfect pitch", which is the ability to hear a note and identify it.
A1 is known for ________. It is in the Superior Temporal Cortex.
Primary Auditory Cortex
The Auditory System has a "what" pathway sensitive to patterns of sound in the _______ temporal cortex.
The Auditory System has a "where" pathway sensitive to patterns of sound location in the ________ temporal cortex and the ________ temporal cortex.
The _________ temporal cortex includes areas important for detecting visual motion and the motion of sounds.
Visual Cortex Structure
- ~ Eye
- ~ Rods & Cones
- ~ Optic Nerve
- ~ Occipital Lobe
- ~ Superior Colliculous
- ~ Lateral Geniculate
- ~ Visual Cortex
Auditory Cortex Structure
- ~ Ear
- ~ Hair Cells
- ~ Auditory Nerve
- ~ Temporal Lobe
- ~ Inferior Colliculous
- ~ Medial Geniculate
- ~ Auditory Cortex
A1 responds to ______ objects.
The 2 categories of Impairment are:
- 1) Conductive = Middle Ear
- 2) Nerve Deafness = Inner Ear
Diseases, infections or tumerous bone growth can prevent the middle ear from transmitting sound waves properly to the cochlea resulting in...
Conductive (middle ear) Deafness
Damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve results in...
Nerve (Inner ear) Deafness
The Visual cortex is essential for ______ ______.
The Auditory Cortex is essential for _____ ______.
Each cell in the A1 responds best to a particular frequency of tones, although many respond better to a _______ tones than to a single frequency.
Areas bordering the ______ analyze the meaning of sounds.
______ may result from damage to the nerve cells or to the bones that conduct sounds to the nerve cells.
We localize ____ frequency sounds according to differences in loudness between the ears.
We localize ____ frequency sounds on the basis of differences in phase.
_______ localization depends on responses of both ears
Sound Localization has 3 cues:
- 1: Sound Shadow
- 2: Time of Arrival
- 3: Phase Difference
The vestibular organ consists of the:
- 3 Semicircular canals
The Vestibular receptors are modified ______ receptors.
The 3 Semicircular Canals are filled with a jelly like substance and lined with _____ ____.
hair cells (activated)
The ___________ system, the sensation of the body and its movements, is not one sense but MANY, including discriminative touch, deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, tickle, and the position and movement of joints.
This detects sudden displacements or high frequency vibrations on the skin.
Inside the outer structure of the Pacinian Corpuscle is the ________ _______.
There are how many spinal nerves in the brain?
31 Spinal Nerves
Each spinal nerve in the brain has a sensory and _____ nerve
Axons have little or no ______ _____, which impulse travels slowly.
3 Aspects of Pain
- Sensory Pain
- Cognitive Evaluation
- Emotion Evaluation
Information from touch receptors in the head enters the _____ _____ ____ through the cranial nerves.
Central Nervous System
Sensory Pain (scratch, scrape, etc) is from the
Peripheral - Hindbrain
Cognitive Evaluation is from the
Emotion Evaluation like Trauma is in the
Pain pathways cross to a track ______ the collateral side of the spinal nerve.
Pain Sensitive cells in the spinal chord relay informations to several areas like the:
- central nuclei
- Somatosensory Cortex
This is a drug with no pharmacological effect.
The itch sensation from your body is called...
Cannabinoids block certain kinds of pain. They are related to this drug.
Taste results from stimulation of the _____ _____, which are the receptors on the tongue.
Mammalian taste receptors are in the taste buds located in _____ , the surface of the tongue.
The sense of smell, is the response to chemicals that contact the membranes inside the nose.
Women are more _____ to odors than men.
Chemicals released by an animal that affect the behavior of other members of the same species.
This is a set of receptors located near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors.
Vomeronasal Organ (VNO)
Each VNO receptor responds to how many pheromone?
The experience some people have in which stimulation of one sense evokes a perception of that sense and another one also.
Name the receptors:
- Emotional Aspects of Pain