Engineering Materials Study Guides

  1. Scientific methods and inquiry are based on:
    a. Recognizing patterns in the behaviors of different substances.

    b. Developing a model that explains these observations.

    c. The model should be able to be used to predict the behavior of other substances.

    d. When possible the model should be quantitative.

    e. Models should make predictions that can be tested experimentally.
  2. Early "scientists" thought all matter was composed of:
    Earth, air, fire, & water
  3.                was the first person to conceive of the idea of the atom.
  4. The            was the first subatomic particle discovered.
  5.               was the first modern scientist to propose the existence of the atom. In his theory, the atom must resemble a               ball.
    Dalton, billiard
  6. Earnest Rutherford was shocked to discover that the atom is 99% empty            . His theory proposed the idea of a               where most of the mass and positive charge would reside.
    space, nucleus
  7. Neils Bohr proposed that;
    a. Electrons could only orbit the nucleus at a fixed distance, its distance from the nucleus (i.e., their radii) being proportional to its energy.  

    b. Only orbits with certain energies were allowed, in other words, charge is quantized.

    c. The energy of the electron in a given orbit is proportional to it's distance from the nucleus.

    d. Light is  absorbed when an electron moves to a higher orbit.

    e. Light is emitted when an electron falls to a lower energy orbit.
  8. The modern view of the atom is that in the center is a                 made up of           and 
                . All of which is surrounded by electrons of different               strengths.
    nucleus, protons, neutrons, energy
  9. Each Atom can be uniquely described by four          numbers.
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Engineering Materials Study Guides
Chapter 2 Test Review Questions