Anatomy week 5

  1. nervous system:
    Directs functions of body’s organs and systems Interprets external environmentDetermines reaction to change
  2. homeostasis:
     In the short term, homeostasis is maintained by the nervous system In the longer term, homeostasis is maintained by endocrine system
  3. central nervous system (CNS):
    brain and spinal cord
  4. peripheral nervous system (PNS):
    everything else
  5. afferent peripheral system:
    Sensory neurons – input to brain
  6. efferent peripheral system:
    Somatic nervous system
  7. neuron: a nerve cell –
     made up of 3 parts
  8. cell body:
    the mass of the cell, with nucleus and support machinery
  9. dendrites:
    receptive areas, i.e. inputs
  10. axon:
    extension of cell body, i.e. output
  11. receptor:
     detects environmental stimuli
  12. sensory:
     receives impulse from receptor site
  13. internuncial:
    transmit impulse for interpretation and processing
  14. motor:
    reaction to the stimulus
  15. nerve impulses:
    are transmitted along nerves much the same way that data is transmitted along an ethernet cable: electrically
  16. resting potential:
    of a nerve cell fiber Negative charge on inside Positive charge on outside
  17. depolarization:
    Na+ rush into cell
  18. repolarization:
    K+ rush out to restore balance
  19. synapse:
     the junction between an axon terminal branches close to next dendrites
  20. neurotransmitter:
    acetylcholine most common- epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, endorphins
  21. white matter:
    groups of myelinated axons forms nerve tracts in CNS
  22. gray matter:
    nerve cell bodies and dendrites, unmyelinated axon bundles, cortex: gray matter on surface of brain
  23. the brain is protected by:
    cranial bones, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  24. brainstem:
     controls breathing, heartbeat rates and reactions to auditory and visual stimuli
  25. diencephalon:
    controls homeostasis
  26. cerebrum:
     controls intellectual processes and emotions
  27. cerebellum:
    maintains body posture and balance
  28. medulla oblongata:
    has ascending and descending tracts, connect spinal cord with the brain, some tracts cross over in medulla
  29. pons varolii:
     usually just called the pons, connects spinal cord with brain, connects parts of brain with each other, helps control breathing
  30. optic tracts:
     the nerves from the eyeball
  31. thalamus:
    relay station for sensory impulses, interpretation center for pain, temperature and touch
  32. epithalamus:
    contains pineal gland
  33. hypothalamus:
     home of homeostasis, controls and integrates autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic), receives sensory impulses from internal organs, controls pituitary gland and links endocrine and nervous systems, very little if any conscious control can be exerted here
  34. cerebral cortex:
     gray matter surface
  35. longitudinal fissure:
    separates two hemispheres
  36. gyri:
     folds (singular is gyrus)
  37. sulci:
    grooves (singular is sulcus)
  38. corpus callosum:
    bridge connecting two hemispheres
  39. motor areas:
    control muscular movements
  40. sensory areas:
    interpret sensory impulses
  41. association areas:
    process emotions and intellect
  42. frontal lobe:
    muscle movement, moods, aggression, smell, motivation
  43. parietal lobe:
    touch, pain, balance, taste, temperature
  44. temporal lobe:
     hearing, smell, memory, abstract thought, judgment
  45. occipital lobe:
  46. cerebellum:
    butterfly-shaped, below and behind the cerebellum two partially separated hemispheres connected by the vermis
  47. functions of the cerebellum:
    coordinating muscular movements, maintaining posture, maintaining balance
  48. meninges:
    three layers
  49. dura mater:
    “tough mother”
  50. arachnoid:
    “cobweb”, fibrous
  51. pia mater:
     “tender mother”, contains the cerebrospinal fluid
  52. spinal nerves:
    connect at roots, Dorsal root: sensory, Ventral root: motor
  53. mechanoreceptors:
     pressure, vibration, texture
  54. thermoreceptors:
    heat, cold
  55. pain receptors:
     mechanical, thermal, chemical
  56. proprioceptors:
    muscle length, position
  57. taste buds:
    on tongue, palate and pharynx
  58. tastes:
    salt, sweet, sour, bitter, umami
  59. sclera:
    white outer wall of the eye
  60. cornea:
    transparent front of the eye
  61. iris:
    colored part of the eye, which contracts and expands to limit light
  62. pupil:
    the hole in the center of the iris
  63. anterior chamber:
    the space between the cornea and the lens, filled with aqueous humor
  64. rods:
    more sensitive, but only perceive shades of grey
  65. cones:
    color perception, less sensitive
  66. posterior chamber:
    the big space inside the eye, behind the lens, filled with vitreous humor
  67. lens:
    clear tissue that focuses light on the retina
  68. retina:
    light-sensitive lining of the eyeball, containing the rods and cones
  69. fovea centralis:
     pit in the center of the back of the eyeball, where the majority of receptors are located
  70. optic nerve:
     the nerve that carries the optic information to the brain
  71. optic disk:
    the “blind spot” where the optic nerve exits the eye, with no receptors
  72. photoreceptors:
     the rods and cones that change the light into nerve impulses
  73. eyebrow:
     ridge of hair above the eye that protects it from sweat, rain, and other debris
  74. eyelashes:
    hairs along with edge of the eyelid
  75. auricle:
     external, visible, flexible part, made of cartilage – also called the pinna
  76. external auditory meatus  -:
     Lined with hair and ceruminous glands
  77. tympanic membrane:
    vibrates in response to sound (ear drum)
  78. helix:
     outer protruding rim
  79. antihelix:
     inner protruding rim
  80. scapha:
    valley between helix and antihelix
  81. concha:
     inner depression around the auditory meatus
  82. lobule:
    the earlobe
  83. auditory ossicles:
    the tiny bones of the inner ear, the malleus, incus and stapes oval window and round window: the stapes vibrates the oval window to set up vibrations inside the cochlea, and the round window is the pressure relief 
  84. Eustachian tube:
     equalizes pressure inside the middle ear
  85. cochlea:
    hearing  equilibrium
  86. vestibule:
  87. semicircular canals:
Card Set
Anatomy week 5
week 5