Zoology review 4.txt

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    • fileName "Zoology review 4"
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    • Benthic
    • Filter feeders
    • Latteraly flattened and translucent
  1. Craniata
    Skull encloses brain and sensory structures
  2. Tunic
  3. What are the 3 subphylum of chordata
    • Urochordata
    • Cephalochordata
    • Vertebrata
  4. What is an example and characteristics of the subphyla Urochordata?
    • Sea squarts
    • Tail and cord
  5. What is an example and characteristics of the subphylum cephalochordata?
    • Lanceletes, Amphioxus
    • Head and tail
  6. What is an example and characteristics of the subphylum Vertebrata?
    • Vertebrates
    • Craniata
  7. What are the 5 characteristics of all Chordata?
    • Presence of a notochord
    • Dorsal tubular nerve cord
    • Phargngeal slits or pouches
    • Endostyle
    • Post anal tail
  8. What is the importance of a notochord
    Supportive rod, runs down body like tail or din (tailbone)
  9. What is the importance of a tubular nerve cord?
    Controls senses and body function
  10. What is the importance of pharangealgeal slits?
    • Filter feeding
    • Gas exchange
  11. What is the importance of endosyle?
    Matabolism (thyroid gland)
  12. What is the importance of a postanal tail?
    Noto bast anus
  13. What are the 5 classes of fish?
    • Myxini
    • Petromyzontida
    • Chondrichtheyes
    • Actinopterygii
    • Sarcopterygii
  14. What is an example of myxini?
  15. What is an example of petromyzontida?
  16. What is an example of chondrichtheyes?
    • Sharks
    • Rays
    • Chumaeras
  17. What is an example of actinopterygii?
    • Ray-finned fish
    • Bony fish
  18. What is an example of sareopterygii?
    • Lobed-finned fish
    • Lung fish
  19. Reproduction of fish
    • Oviparous
    • External fertilization
  20. Sensory perception
    • Lateral lines
    • Excellent eyes
    • Ampulla of lorenzini
  21. What are the characteristics of Agnathan?
    • Lack of jaws
    • Internal cssification scales
    • Paired fins
    • Have pore (like gill opening)
    • Eel like nodies
  22. What are the characteristics of Gnathostomata?
    • Jawed fish with paired appendages
    • Jaws evolved from anterior pairs of skeleton support for the gill slits
  23. Adaptations to life/ locomotion in water.
    • Streamline body shape
    • Muscoid secretion lubricated body
    • Tail fin is tail or forked
  24. Viviparous
    Embryo receives nourishment from the maternal blood stream from secretions of mothee
  25. Oviparous
    Lays eggs shorty after fertilization.
  26. Ovoviviparous
    Retaining development of young in uterus
  27. Osmoregulation of marine and fresh water fish?
    • Regulation of internal concentrating of salts and water
    • Fresh- loss ions too much water
    • Marine-too many ions loss if water
  28. What are the 3 tail types?
    • Hetercercal- shortburst
    • Homocercal- fast swimmers
    • Diphycercal - average
  29. What was a major development in vertebrate evolution and how it is nelieved to be formed?
    Jaws- formed from first pair of pharyngeal gill arches
  30. Pro/con of parental care
    Pro- increase chances of offspring survival

    Con- greater energy expenditure and a risk to the parent
  31. Armocoetes
    Lampry larvae form
  32. Ampulla of lorenzini
    Electroreceptors that pick up on bioelectric fields surrounding prey
  33. Claspers
    Modified structures that assist in reproduction
  34. Countershading
  35. Electoreception
    Detection of minute electrical currents produced across the cell membrane of the prey
  36. Endochondral bone
    Bone in the skeleton or scales that replace cartilage developmentally
  37. Lateral line system
    Detects low frequency vibrations in the water. Helps sharks locate prey
  38. Myomeres
    More power and finer control. Large body movement
  39. Operculum
    A movable flap covering each gill that can pump water over the gills. Allowing fish to stay stationary
  40. Placoid scales
    Teeth and skin modification in sharks
  41. Spiracles
    Serve as modified gill slits that open into the pharynx,and 5 pairs of gill slits
  42. Squalene
    Compound found in shark liver oil
  43. Swim bladder
    Gas filled chamber aids in sinking or floting
  44. What are the 3 orders of amphibia
    • Vredela
    • Gymonophiona
    • Anura
  45. What is an example of urodela?
    Salamaders- passes a tail through out life
  46. What is an example of Gymonophiona?
    Carcilians- legless wormlike
  47. What is an example of Anura
    Fros,toads- tied to water,first true animal to exhibit a true tonge
  48. Sensory preception
    Lateral line system
  49. Reproduction of amphibia
    • Internal fertilization
    • Some give birth others lay eggs
  50. Adaptations to terrestrial life (amphibia)
    Skeleton modification: flattened skull,fewer bones than fish flexible

    Skin secretion prevent drying, producing toxins aids in molting
  51. Origin of Tetrapods
    Air filled cavities ( swim bladder) and onternal nares

    Bony paired fins- provided support and movement on land
  52. How do Amphilbia prevent desiccation?
    • 1) Nocturnal behavior
    • 2) Habitat with high humidity
    • 3) Reduce body surface exposed to air
    • 4) Skin can absorb water on moist surface
    • 5) Temporary store water from bladder a lymph sacs
  53. Amphibia ectothermic vs endothermic
    Ectothermuc- rely on environment for temperature control
  54. How do amphibia regulate body temperature
    Bask in sun or on warm surface after meals
  55. Discribe the skin of amphibians
    Thin requires moisture
  56. Function os amphibia skin pro/con
    • Pro- thin enough to breath threw
    • Con- drys out fast
  57. Osmpregulation
    How to regulate water
  58. Osmoregulation of aquatic/terrestrial amphibians
    Kidneys same as fish
  59. Feeding habits
    More of a bite useing tonge
  60. Amphibia methods for breathing
    • Gills
    • Lung
  61. Amphibia was the first to have what?
  62. Amplexus
    Male grabs female during reproduction
  63. Buccal pump
    Aids in breathing hold in air
  64. Buccopharyngeal respiration
    Respitory gas exchange across vascularized membrane of the mouth
  65. Cutaneous respiration
    Vascular nets in skin gor respiration of oxygen and carbon deoxide with the external environment
  66. Metamorphosis
    The change from young to adult
  67. Paedomorphic
    Child form
  68. Tetrapod
    Four limber vertebrea
  69. What r the 4 orders of reptiles
    • Testudines
    • Squamata
    • Sephenodonta
    • Crocodylia
  70. What is an example of testudines
  71. What is an example of squamata
    Snakes, lizards
  72. What is an example of sphenodonta
  73. What is an example of crocodylia
  74. Sensory perception of Reptilia
    Jacobs organ, pit organ, pridal eyes, vibrations
  75. Reproduction in reptilia
    Internal fertilization
  76. Reptilia were first to produce what
    Amniotic eggs
  77. Global distribution of Tuataras
    New Zealand
  78. Ectothermic vs endothermic among reptilia
    Ectothermic external heat collection
  79. 4 extraembryotic membranes (structures inside egg)
    • 1) yolk sac
    • 2) embryon
    • 3) coreon
    • 4) allantace
  80. Autotomy
    Loose apendages to run away
  81. Jacobsons organ
    Pouches found in some reptiles
  82. Pit organ
    Heat- sensitive organ on each side of the eye and nostril
  83. Kinetic skull
    Able to stretch to eat
  84. How do reptilia keep from loosing water
    Lipids in thick skin
  85. Secondary palate
    • Allows crocs to hold breath
    • Protects brain
  86. Plastron
    Bottom of turtals shell
  87. Keratin
    Shingle like skin overlapping body covering
  88. Median perietal eye
    Found on Tuatares believed to aid in detection of threat
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Zoology review 4.txt