Thur, the overreaching objective of this book is to enable you to view 1) And your world from a sociological perspective, to move from the 2) Level to the. 3) Level in understanding social behavior.
The interplay between individuals in their social structures is a two-way street: People are. 1) by there are social structures, and people. 2) their social structures.
The sociological 1) invites us to examine the intersection between personal 2) and social 3)
Because no science of society existed, 1) attempted to create one himself and 2) the term sociology to describe the science.
Spencer believed that evolutionary social change led to 1) provided that people did not 2) . If left alone, natural selection would ensure the 3) of the 4) .
Marx predicted that ultimately all industrial societies would contain only two social classes : the 1) , those who owned the means for producing wealth in individual society, and the 2) , those who labored at subsistence wages for the bourgeoisie.
emphasizes the contributions ( functions ) performed by each part of a society.
1) theory, in contrast, focuses on the 2) between various groups in a society or between societies.
".......1) interactionism: the theoretical perspective that focuses on the interaction among people - interaction based on mutually understood 2) "
" According to 1) theory ...... Everything is culturally 2) : there is no absolute 3) .
Remember that a 1) between two variables does not mean that one 2) the other
From a careful examination of relevant theory and previous research finding, a psychologist and state one or more1) - tentative, 2) statements of relationships among variables.
Variables that 1) something to occur are 2) variables. Variable in which a change 3) ( or effect ) can be observed are 4) variables
A. exists when a change in one variable is associated with a change in me other.
The. of survey questions may also introduced bias.
The use of previously collected information is a well- respected method of collecting data. This is known as
The most popular approach to field research is the
In. observation, a researcher become a temporary member of the group being studied.
Disadvantages do exist,however. The findings from the one case may not be. to similar situation.
"1) - the duplication of the same study to ascertain its accuracy- is closely link to.2) and 3) ...."
2) both reliability
Des Cartes said
I think therefore I am. Individualistic. Western type of thinking.
I am because we are.
The study of " socius" -" being with others" The study of "people doing things together."
The pattern and of people doing things together.
The ability to see for oneself the connection between history and biography.
the stream of mankind
How my life is influenced by the larger social by the larger social focus.( social class, economy and politics. exct
The ability to look beyond the individual as the cause of their success or failure.... and see how society in influences is what happens!
The ability to view 1 society as an outsider would without bias
Coined the term socialigy
1) The opiate of the people.
2)Working class accepting their lower position and for a better life in the afterlife
How do you make sense of social behavior? ( Functionalist )
Interdependence of institution on one another
How do you make sense of social behavior? (Conflict. )
Conflict! There is tension between competing group.
How do you make sense of social behavior? ( symbols )
You have to understand the symbols! The most common symbol is language.
What is the most common symbols?
What do you do with change? Functionalist
Resist it! The goal is to maintain equilibrium. Like a thermostat.
What do you do with changes in conflict category.
Embrace it! There is constant pleasure to change as people fight for scarce resources. Like power, prestige and property.
What do you do with the names in symbolic category.
What do you do with change in the symbolic category?
Accept it! People are constantly changing the way that they see reality.
View people and institutions! Functionalist
Positive ! Society works together like the organs of a body to function for the good of all
View of people and institutions in the conflict category
Negative! People out for themselves. A dog eat dog mentality
View of people and institutions in the symbolic category?
Neural- Neither good nor bad its how we perceive or understand the symbols.
What is the view of social order in functionalist category?
Maintained for the common good by consensus.
What is the view of social order in the conflict category?
Maintained by those in power through force.
What is the view of social order in the symbolic category?
Maintained by a comman understanding of behavior
What questions do functionalist ask?
1) what keeps society functioning smoothly.
2) what functions do institutions perform for society.
3) where are dysfunctions ( cancers ) occurring, and how can they fix it
What questions do people in the conflict category ask?
1) what are the sources of conflict.
2) how do people get and maintain control and power
3) how can inequality be overcome in society?
4) who are the haves and the have nots.
What questions do people in the symbolic category ask?
1) how do people develop a sense of self?
2) what are the common symbols that make it social life possible?
3) how do people change the symbols?
Amount of social integration high:
Ex. Parents, Soldiers, and religious people.
Amount of social integration low:
Ex. Men, protestants, and ppl who are lonely
Ex depressed, teenagers
Amount of social integration confused:
Ex divorced, bankrupt
Durkheim's theory of sucide
1) Altruistic - high
2) Egoistic - low
3) Fatalistic - low/confused
4) Anomic - confused
That the engine of human history is class conflict between the have vs the have not.