Bio 1406.txt

    • author "me"
    • tags ""
    • description ""
    • fileName "Bio 1406"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Molecules and Compounds are formed by?
    • Chemical bonds or bonding
  1. What 2 types of chemical bond?
    Ionic and Covalent
  2. What is different in Ionic and Covalent bonds?
    Ionic bonds completely transfer electrons to eachother
  3. Hydrogen
    Bonds btwn molecules or parts of molecules
  4. What are the characteristics of an organic compound?
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
  5. Hydrogen bonds
    Btwn charged potions of molecules (NOT ATOMS)
  6. Types of Covalent bonds
    • Peptide
    • Phospodiester linkage
    • Ester linkage
    • Glycosidic linkage
  7. Condensation/dehydration reaction does what?
    Builds structures up
  8. What does a hydrolysis reaction do?
    Tears them down
  9. What are the types of reactions based on energy requirements?
    • Endergonic
    • Exergonic
  10. What are the types of chemical reactions based on building larger molecules or breaking larger molecules into smaller ones?
    • Condensation/dehydration
    • Hydrolysis
  11. Endergonic reaction
    Needs input of energy
  12. Exergonic reaction
    Spontaneous,will go without energy
  13. Monomers
    Bond together w/ peptide bond to form polymers
  14. Polymerization: through which ttpe of chemical reactions?
  15. Type of covalent bonds between amino acids?
    Peptide bonds
  16. Oligopeptide
    Few peptides (less than 50)
  17. Polypeptide
    Many peptides ( more than 50)
  18. What are the types of peptide bonds?
    • Oligopeptide
    • Polypeptide
  19. Great function diversity if proteins due to?
    1. Diversity of structure- shape related function

    2. Reactivity of R-group ( side-chains)
  20. What are the levels of organization?
    • Primary structure
    • Secondary structure
    • Tertiary structure
    • Quaternary structure
  21. Primary structure
    Its amino acid sequence. ( even small changes,from mutation, have radical differences)
  22. Secondary structure
    Formed by H-bonds between Carboxyl group and Amino
  23. Bonds between atoms of peptide-bonded back bone ( NOT side groups) caused bendong which leads to 2 types of shape changes ......
    • (Alfa) ok -helix(spiral shape)
    • (Bada) b-pleated sheet ( reverse stairs )
  24. Tertiary structure
    Due to interaction between R-groups causes bends and folds proteins distinctive 3-D shape,its unique overal shape
  25. Dimer
    2 polys
  26. Tetramer
    4 polys
  27. Quarternary structure
    1-3 degree tertiary structure due to polypeptides. Also many prots have several polypeptides bonded together to form a single structure
  28. Prions
    Illness created by miss folding. Can be airborne. Ex mad cow
  29. Amyloid
    Build up by miss folding. Ex alsymers
  30. Folding/Denaturing
    Determines final shape . So a proteins unique function tied to its folding.
  31. What happens when "unfold"(denatured) occurs?
    It cannot perform its function. The structure will unfold. Ex what happens when body temp gets to high
  32. Name protein based hormones
    • Insulin
    • Throxin
    • Growth Hormone ( GH )
  33. Organic compounds always contain?
  34. Why carbon?
    Only 4 electrons on outer ring which allows it to bind ti many different compounds and molecules
  35. The right side of an amino acid is classified as?
    Carbroxyl group
  36. The left side of a amino acid structure is classified as?
    Amino group
  37. If there is a change to a group what happens?
    We will see a positive or negative vharge
  38. Peptide bonds are?
    Covalent bonds and they are stronge
  39. Peptide bonds process?
    Polymerzation forms: macro molecules
  40. DNA decides what?
    Which amino acid goes where. This is how family illnesses are passed on
  41. Peptide bonds form between?
    Varbon group of one A.A. ti amino group
  42. Structure sequence of amino acids?
    Amino acids: (building block ) monomers
  43. Enzymes
    Biological catalysts
  44. What do enzymes do?
    • 1)Speed up chemical reaction
    • 2)Lower amounts of energy needed
    • 3)Enables life processes to occure at moderate temperatures
  45. Enzymes equal?
  46. Catalists equal
    Makes reaction occurr faster
  47. Lipids
    Non-polar and hydrophobici but dissolve in non polar org. Liquids
  48. Each glyceride is ?
    Always the same
  49. Steak break down?
    Chewing breaks down the food, the food goes to stomach and the enzymes activate the amino acids and protein to digests the food
  50. What are the different fats?
    • 1) Saturated fats
    • 2) Unsaturated fats
    • 3) Monounsaturated fats
    • 4) Polyunsaturated fats
    • 5) Trans fats
    • 6) Partially-hydrogenated fats
  51. Saturated fats
    saturated with hydrogen usually solud at room temp
  52. Unsaturated fats
    Double bonded with carbon (c=c)
  53. Monounsaturated fats
    One double bond (c=c). Ex olive oil
  54. Polyunsaturated fats
    More than one double bond between carbons (c=c=c)
  55. What are fast food and plastic bottles?
    Partially-hydrogenated ( oils/fats)
  56. Competitive inhibition
    The substrates cannot bind when a regulatory molecule binds to the enzymes site
  57. Allosteric activation
    The active site becomes available to the substrates when a regulatory molecule binds to a different site on the enzyme
  58. Initiation
    Reactants bind to the active site forming an enzyme substrate complex
  59. Transition state facilitation
    Interaction between enzyme and substrates lower the activation energy required
  60. Termination
    Products have lower affinity for active sites and are released. Enzyme is uncharged after reaction
  61. What are the molecules of fats?
    • 1) gliceride
    • 2) fatty acids
  62. How many fatty acids per glyceral?
  63. What is one fat molecule?
  64. Blank are lipids?
    Fats are lipids
  65. What are the types of lipids?
    Fats, steroids, phospholipids
  66. Lipids are blank
  67. Side effects of testosterone are
    • 1)Aggression
    • 2)Less social
    • 3)Less conversation
    • 4)Sex drive is high with higher levels of testosterone
  68. Effects of estrogen
    • 1) more communication
    • 2) More social
    • 3) more tolerant
  69. What is progesterone?
    The nest building hormone
  70. Estrogen encourages
    Lipid deposition
  71. Composed of 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule by?
    Ester linkages
  72. Each triglyceride is a
    Single fat molescule
  73. Different fats:Fatty acid chains differ:
    • 1) by length of carbon " skeleton "
    • 2) by amount of H's the carbon skeleton is bonded to
  74. Steroids
    Class of lipids - (hormones)
  75. What are the sex drive bases steroids?
    • 1) testosterone
    • 2) estrogen
    • 3) predenesone
  76. What are the anti inflammatory steroids?
    • 1) cortisone
    • 2) predenesone
  77. What forms membranes in all organisms?
  78. Two forms which very by side chains?
    1) 2 fatty acids ( domains: Bacteria and Eurkarya)

    2) 2 isoprene tail ( domain: Archaea) has a water loving head
  79. 2 isoprene tails do what
    Heads are spontaneously align so " heads" face out to liquid solution always
  80. What are the function of lipids?
    1) Form Membrane: plasma membrane

    2) stores chemical energy: fuel secondary

    3) signals between cells ( hormones )

    4) insulation/packing medium (or in animals keeps heat in)

    5) water proof coating - leaves, skin: waxy skin of cactus keeps water in or out)

    6) acts as pigments : capture / respond sunlight

    7) act as vitamins;
  81. What are the lipid soluble vitamins
    A, E the ones that can kill u
  82. What are the classes of carbohydrates
    • 1) monosaccharides
    • 2) disaccharides
    • 3) polysaccharides
  83. Polysacchardes are
    Starches stored in foots a reserve for trees on a rainy day

    Glycogen: what humans use to store energy in the liver

    Cellulose: most abundant organic compound. "Fiber" " rufage"

    Chitin: skeleton of insects and arthropodz

    Peptidoglycan: need structural support in bacterial cell
  84. Monosaccharides are
    • Sugars
    • glucose
    • Galactose
    • Fructose
  85. Disaccharides are
    • Suctose
    • Maltose
    • Lactos
  86. Variation in monosaccharide structure
    Location of carbonyl group ( on C chain)

    Number of C's ( each number consecutively starting with end nearest carbonyl group)

    Spatial arrangement of their molecules

    Exist in linear or ring forms
  87. Number of C's are called
    • 3-C: Triose
    • 5-C: Pentoses
    • 6-C: Hexose
  88. Polymerization of monosaccharies involves what type of chemical reaction
  89. Bonds btwn monomers polymerzation of monoccharides
    Glycosidic linkage
  90. Stores chemical energy
    • Glycose
    • Lactose
    • Starches
    • Galstose
  91. Structual function of carbohydrates
    • Cellulose
    • Chitin
    • Peptidedoglycan
  92. Functions of indicated cell identity
    Eex organ transplant,

  93. Nuclecic acids monomers
  94. Nucleic acid bonds
    Phosodiester linkage
  95. Ex of phosophodiester linkage
    • DNA
    • RNA
  96. Robert Hooke 1665
    1st to observe cells on a cork
  97. Anton Van Leeuwenkoek
    Observed pond dwellers single celled
  98. Matthias Schleden
    Observed plants cells
  99. Effects of observevaions of the original biologist on cells
    Unified study of life into biology
  100. Ex of species under prokaryotic
    • Strepococcus
    • Staphylococ us
    • Listeria
    • Salmonella
    • MRSA
  101. Cell wall composed of
  102. Function structure of prokaryotic cell
  103. Prokaryotic cell membrane composed of
  104. Prokaryotic cell has how manu chromosome?
    Single which is a super coil - attend to cell heatbrate
  105. Prokaryotic cells also contain small DNA called
    Plasmids small dots on inside
  106. If bacteria are exposed to a new toxin (penicillin)
    Bacteria will share plasmids with neighboring bacteria
  107. Ribosomes
    Site of protein synthesid ( but differ from eukaryotic ribosomes)
  108. Flagella
    Many bacterial species exhibit these made of protein due to moveabilitt
  109. Eukaryotic cell have
    Cell walls seen in fungi and some protists
  110. Cell wall of plants composed of
  111. Cell wall of fungi composed of
  112. Function of cell structure
    Limits size of living cell and prevents rupturing after large uptake of h2o. Maintains size of all
  113. Do eukaryotic cell have plasma membrane
    Yes they have a fluid mosaic - many different things to make up a whole
  114. Composition of eukaryotic cell
    Primary - phospholipid bilayer
  115. What is embedded within phosolipid bilater
    • Proteins
    • Cholesterol
    • Glyoproteins
  116. Phosopholipid bilayer protein
    Receptors ( hormones, enzymes ): functions ato activate many things but must find the correct key for lock
  117. Cholesterol
    Increases strength of membrane ( decreases fluidity )

    Decreases permeability
  118. Glycoproteins
    Carbohydrate attached to proteins
  119. Primary function of cell membranes
    Controls the passage way of material substances into and out of the cell
  120. Primary function of cell membranes called
  121. Intracellular structures of eukaryotic cell are
    • Ribosomes
    • Nucleus
  122. Those wrapped / bond with membranes are
  123. Ribosomes of interacellular structures
    Amino acids
  124. How many ribosomes per cell
    Usually millions
  125. Ribosome found
    In cytoplasm

    On rough ER ( endoplasmic romedium)
  126. Nucleus does what
    Stores genetic material: DNA/ chromatin/ chromosomes
  127. Enclosed within a nucleus is
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Nuclear lamina
  128. Nuclear envelope has what
    Many pores that link it to the nuclear lamina
  129. Nuclear lamina is and does what
    Fibrous proteins that form a lattice like sheet. Which helps maintain the shape of the envelop
  130. Endoplasmic Recticulum is
    Membranous, often continues with nuclear envelope
  131. Endoplasmic Reticulum involved with
    Synthesis and transport of compounds/ substances
  132. Endoplasmic Reticulum shape
    Complex, 3-D, membrane system
  133. What are 2 types of Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Rough ER
    • Smooth ER
  134. Rough ER appearance
    Ribosomes provide grainy look
  135. Rough ER does
    Involved with production of proteins (for cell membranes, those to be secreted an moved to lysosomes ( enzymes )) and transport them
  136. Smooth ER does
    Involved with production of lipids

    Breaks down toxic lipids
  137. Smooth ER produces
    Lipids - phospholipids, fatty acids, steroids
  138. Both ER work with
    Golgi Complex
  139. Golgi Complex consists of
    Flattened membranous vesicles
  140. each cisternae is
    Golgi body
  141. Golgi body openings called
  142. Golgi complex arranged in
  143. Golgi complex does
    Proteins are finished and packaged in membranous vesicle fore storage/ secretion

    Go in to luman than get tagged and released
  144. Ex of lumar opening
    A vein
  145. Nucleus has how many membranes
  146. Eukaryotic cells look like
  147. Lysosome contain
    Digestive enzymes
  148. Lysosomes do what
    Destroy cells/ waste to monomers then monomers are recycled
  149. Lysosomes are what type of reaction
  150. Central vacuole does
    Provides structure to plants
  151. Hos does the central vacuole give plants structure
    Taking in water and pressing against cell wall forcing it in place
  152. Why do vacuoles store chemicals
    To prevent cosumption
  153. Toxins in plants have helped with
    Medications like blood pressure

    Alkaline compounds
  154. Mitochondria structure
    2 outer membranes
  155. Layers of Mitochondria called
    • Inner - matrix
    • Outer - cristae
  156. Where are Mitchondria found
    Brain and muscles
  157. MTSNA stands for
    Mitchondria have there own DNA code
  158. What is the function of the Mitchondria
    Cellular resperation breaking apart glucose to make cellular food (ATP)
  159. What are the organisums with circular chromosomes
  160. mitochondia are
  161. Mitochondria have
    Circular chromosones

    Ribosomes which carry their own protein synthesis
  162. Mitochondria circular chromosome and unique ribosomes mean what
    They came from a bacteria engulfed by a cell and instead of being broken down it remained and became mutually beneficial
  163. What is the believed origin of Mitochondia
  164. Where do we inherit our mitochondria
    Our mothers
  165. What is the significance of the mitochondria inheritance
    We can trace our family tree back to one of the 7 women
Card Set
Bio 1406.txt