- author "me"
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- Molecules and Compounds are formed by?
- Chemical bonds or bonding
What 2 types of chemical bond?
Ionic and Covalent
What is different in Ionic and Covalent bonds?
Ionic bonds completely transfer electrons to eachother
Bonds btwn molecules or parts of molecules
What are the characteristics of an organic compound?
- Nucleic Acids
Btwn charged potions of molecules (NOT ATOMS)
Types of Covalent bonds
- Phospodiester linkage
- Ester linkage
- Glycosidic linkage
Condensation/dehydration reaction does what?
Builds structures up
What does a hydrolysis reaction do?
Tears them down
What are the types of reactions based on energy requirements?
What are the types of chemical reactions based on building larger molecules or breaking larger molecules into smaller ones?
Needs input of energy
Spontaneous,will go without energy
Bond together w/ peptide bond to form polymers
Polymerization: through which ttpe of chemical reactions?
Type of covalent bonds between amino acids?
Few peptides (less than 50)
Many peptides ( more than 50)
What are the types of peptide bonds?
Great function diversity if proteins due to?
1. Diversity of structure- shape related function
2. Reactivity of R-group ( side-chains)
What are the levels of organization?
- Primary structure
- Secondary structure
- Tertiary structure
- Quaternary structure
Its amino acid sequence. ( even small changes,from mutation, have radical differences)
Formed by H-bonds between Carboxyl group and Amino
Bonds between atoms of peptide-bonded back bone ( NOT side groups) caused bendong which leads to 2 types of shape changes ......
- (Alfa) ok -helix(spiral shape)
- (Bada) b-pleated sheet ( reverse stairs )
Due to interaction between R-groups causes bends and folds proteins distinctive 3-D shape,its unique overal shape
1-3 degree tertiary structure due to polypeptides. Also many prots have several polypeptides bonded together to form a single structure
Illness created by miss folding. Can be airborne. Ex mad cow
Build up by miss folding. Ex alsymers
Determines final shape . So a proteins unique function tied to its folding.
What happens when "unfold"(denatured) occurs?
It cannot perform its function. The structure will unfold. Ex what happens when body temp gets to high
Name protein based hormones
- Growth Hormone ( GH )
Organic compounds always contain?
Only 4 electrons on outer ring which allows it to bind ti many different compounds and molecules
The right side of an amino acid is classified as?
The left side of a amino acid structure is classified as?
If there is a change to a group what happens?
We will see a positive or negative vharge
Peptide bonds are?
Covalent bonds and they are stronge
Peptide bonds process?
Polymerzation forms: macro molecules
DNA decides what?
Which amino acid goes where. This is how family illnesses are passed on
Peptide bonds form between?
Varbon group of one A.A. ti amino group
Structure sequence of amino acids?
Amino acids: (building block ) monomers
What do enzymes do?
- 1)Speed up chemical reaction
- 2)Lower amounts of energy needed
- 3)Enables life processes to occure at moderate temperatures
Makes reaction occurr faster
Non-polar and hydrophobici but dissolve in non polar org. Liquids
Each glyceride is ?
Always the same
Steak break down?
Chewing breaks down the food, the food goes to stomach and the enzymes activate the amino acids and protein to digests the food
What are the different fats?
- 1) Saturated fats
- 2) Unsaturated fats
- 3) Monounsaturated fats
- 4) Polyunsaturated fats
- 5) Trans fats
- 6) Partially-hydrogenated fats
saturated with hydrogen usually solud at room temp
Double bonded with carbon (c=c)
One double bond (c=c). Ex olive oil
More than one double bond between carbons (c=c=c)
What are fast food and plastic bottles?
Partially-hydrogenated ( oils/fats)
The substrates cannot bind when a regulatory molecule binds to the enzymes site
The active site becomes available to the substrates when a regulatory molecule binds to a different site on the enzyme
Reactants bind to the active site forming an enzyme substrate complex
Transition state facilitation
Interaction between enzyme and substrates lower the activation energy required
Products have lower affinity for active sites and are released. Enzyme is uncharged after reaction
What are the molecules of fats?
- 1) gliceride
- 2) fatty acids
How many fatty acids per glyceral?
What is one fat molecule?
Blank are lipids?
Fats are lipids
What are the types of lipids?
Fats, steroids, phospholipids
Lipids are blank
Side effects of testosterone are
- 2)Less social
- 3)Less conversation
- 4)Sex drive is high with higher levels of testosterone
Effects of estrogen
- 1) more communication
- 2) More social
- 3) more tolerant
What is progesterone?
The nest building hormone
Composed of 3 fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule by?
Each triglyceride is a
Single fat molescule
Different fats:Fatty acid chains differ:
- 1) by length of carbon " skeleton "
- 2) by amount of H's the carbon skeleton is bonded to
Class of lipids - (hormones)
What are the sex drive bases steroids?
- 1) testosterone
- 2) estrogen
- 3) predenesone
What are the anti inflammatory steroids?
- 1) cortisone
- 2) predenesone
What forms membranes in all organisms?
Two forms which very by side chains?
1) 2 fatty acids ( domains: Bacteria and Eurkarya)
2) 2 isoprene tail ( domain: Archaea) has a water loving head
2 isoprene tails do what
Heads are spontaneously align so " heads" face out to liquid solution always
What are the function of lipids?
1) Form Membrane: plasma membrane
2) stores chemical energy: fuel secondary
3) signals between cells ( hormones )
4) insulation/packing medium (or in animals keeps heat in)
5) water proof coating - leaves, skin: waxy skin of cactus keeps water in or out)
6) acts as pigments : capture / respond sunlight
7) act as vitamins;
What are the lipid soluble vitamins
A, E the ones that can kill u
What are the classes of carbohydrates
- 1) monosaccharides
- 2) disaccharides
- 3) polysaccharides
Starches stored in foots a reserve for trees on a rainy day
Glycogen: what humans use to store energy in the liver
Cellulose: most abundant organic compound. "Fiber" " rufage"
Chitin: skeleton of insects and arthropodz
Peptidoglycan: need structural support in bacterial cell
Variation in monosaccharide structure
Location of carbonyl group ( on C chain)
Number of C's ( each number consecutively starting with end nearest carbonyl group)
Spatial arrangement of their molecules
Exist in linear or ring forms
Number of C's are called
- 3-C: Triose
- 5-C: Pentoses
- 6-C: Hexose
Polymerization of monosaccharies involves what type of chemical reaction
Bonds btwn monomers polymerzation of monoccharides
Stores chemical energy
Structual function of carbohydrates
Functions of indicated cell identity
Eex organ transplant,
Nuclecic acids monomers
Nucleic acid bonds
Ex of phosophodiester linkage
- ATP ( FUEL MOLECULES)
Robert Hooke 1665
1st to observe cells on a cork
Anton Van Leeuwenkoek
Observed pond dwellers single celled
Observed plants cells
Effects of observevaions of the original biologist on cells
Unified study of life into biology
Ex of species under prokaryotic
- Staphylococ us
Cell wall composed of
Function structure of prokaryotic cell
Prokaryotic cell membrane composed of
Prokaryotic cell has how manu chromosome?
Single which is a super coil - attend to cell heatbrate
Prokaryotic cells also contain small DNA called
Plasmids small dots on inside
If bacteria are exposed to a new toxin (penicillin)
Bacteria will share plasmids with neighboring bacteria
Site of protein synthesid ( but differ from eukaryotic ribosomes)
Many bacterial species exhibit these made of protein due to moveabilitt
Eukaryotic cell have
Cell walls seen in fungi and some protists
Cell wall of plants composed of
Cell wall of fungi composed of
Function of cell structure
Limits size of living cell and prevents rupturing after large uptake of h2o. Maintains size of all
Do eukaryotic cell have plasma membrane
Yes they have a fluid mosaic - many different things to make up a whole
Composition of eukaryotic cell
Primary - phospholipid bilayer
What is embedded within phosolipid bilater
Phosopholipid bilayer protein
Receptors ( hormones, enzymes ): functions ato activate many things but must find the correct key for lock
Increases strength of membrane ( decreases fluidity )
Carbohydrate attached to proteins
Primary function of cell membranes
Controls the passage way of material substances into and out of the cell
Primary function of cell membranes called
Intracellular structures of eukaryotic cell are
Those wrapped / bond with membranes are
Ribosomes of interacellular structures
How many ribosomes per cell
On rough ER ( endoplasmic romedium)
Nucleus does what
Stores genetic material: DNA/ chromatin/ chromosomes
Enclosed within a nucleus is
- Nuclear envelope
- Nuclear lamina
Nuclear envelope has what
Many pores that link it to the nuclear lamina
Nuclear lamina is and does what
Fibrous proteins that form a lattice like sheet. Which helps maintain the shape of the envelop
Endoplasmic Recticulum is
Membranous, often continues with nuclear envelope
Endoplasmic Reticulum involved with
Synthesis and transport of compounds/ substances
Endoplasmic Reticulum shape
Complex, 3-D, membrane system
What are 2 types of Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough ER appearance
Ribosomes provide grainy look
Rough ER does
Involved with production of proteins (for cell membranes, those to be secreted an moved to lysosomes ( enzymes )) and transport them
Smooth ER does
Involved with production of lipids
Breaks down toxic lipids
Smooth ER produces
Lipids - phospholipids, fatty acids, steroids
Both ER work with
Golgi Complex consists of
Flattened membranous vesicles
each cisternae is
Golgi body openings called
Golgi complex arranged in
Golgi complex does
Proteins are finished and packaged in membranous vesicle fore storage/ secretion
Go in to luman than get tagged and released
Ex of lumar opening
Nucleus has how many membranes
Eukaryotic cells look like
Lysosomes do what
Destroy cells/ waste to monomers then monomers are recycled
Lysosomes are what type of reaction
Central vacuole does
Provides structure to plants
Hos does the central vacuole give plants structure
Taking in water and pressing against cell wall forcing it in place
Why do vacuoles store chemicals
To prevent cosumption
Toxins in plants have helped with
Medications like blood pressure
2 outer membranes
Layers of Mitochondria called
- Inner - matrix
- Outer - cristae
Where are Mitchondria found
Brain and muscles
MTSNA stands for
Mitchondria have there own DNA code
What is the function of the Mitchondria
Cellular resperation breaking apart glucose to make cellular food (ATP)
What are the organisums with circular chromosomes
Ribosomes which carry their own protein synthesis
Mitochondria circular chromosome and unique ribosomes mean what
They came from a bacteria engulfed by a cell and instead of being broken down it remained and became mutually beneficial
What is the believed origin of Mitochondia
Where do we inherit our mitochondria
What is the significance of the mitochondria inheritance
We can trace our family tree back to one of the 7 women