Ch 41 Bio

  1. Essential nutrients
    Nutrients that your cells need but cannot produce on their own
  2. Adequate diet consists of these three
    Chemical energy, organic building blocks, essential nutrients
  3. Four classes of essential nutrients
    essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals
  4. malnourishment and undernourishment 
    • mal ->diet doesn't supply one or more essential nutrients¬†
    • under-> diet supplies less chemical energy than the body requires
  5. Vitamins
    Organic molecules requires in diet in small amounts. there are 13
  6. Minerals
    Simple inorganic nutrients usually required in small amounts. P is necessary for nucleic acids and ATP. Ca needed for muscle and nerve function.
  7. what is the rhythmic contractions of muscles in the wall of the canal in the digestive system called?
  8. What two chemicals are in the stomach?
    HCl and pepsin (protease)
  9. What happens in duodenum
    Fluids from pancreas (ammonium bicarbone-- which increases the pH of the small intestine-- and typrin and chymotripsin-- proteases) and liver (bile-- which contains bile salts which aid in fat digestion. Contains pigments from disassembly of RBCs which are pooped out) enter the duodenum. The liver also breaks down toxins and helps balance nutrient utilization. The duodenum also produces some of its own enzymes which aid in digestion.
  10. What happens to fats once they are digested in the small intestine?
    Glycerol and fatty acids are absorbed by epithelial cells and recombined into fats. Fats are mixed w. cholesterol, coated w. protein (chylomicrons), and transported into lacteals (each villus has a lacteal). The lymph then goes into larger lymphatic vessels and then into large veins that return blood to heart
  11. Small intestine connects to large intestine where? What does this junction do?
    Cecum. The cecum aids in fermentation of plant material. Appendix is an extension of cecum. Appendix may play minor role in immunity.
  12. What are the technical terms for each type of tooth you have?
    Image Upload 2
  13. What regulates digestion?
    Enteric nervous system and the endocrine system (gastrin is released when bolus stretches stomach walls, which releases gastric juices in stomach. CCK and secretin are released when acid chyme enters small intestine. CCK stimulates release of enzymes from pancreas and bile from gall bladder. Secretin stimulates pancreas to release ammonium bicarbonate. If chyme is rich in fats, a lot of CCK and secretin is released which inhibit peristalsis in stomach.
Card Set
Ch 41 Bio
Ch 41 Bio