1. what are the glycoproteins on HIV envelope?
    • GP120
    • GP41
    • together make GP 160
  2. what type of virus is HIV?
    • retrovirus
    • 2single stranded RNA
  3. what are the ways of transmission of HIV?
    • sexual: concurrent STI
    • blood: IVDU, blood product
    • vertical: delivery or breast feed
  4. how is vertical transmission of HIV prevented?
    • 1. HAART to pregnant woman
    • 2. C-section to control blood contact at delivery
    • 3. stop breast feeding
  5. give 7 features of primary HIV infection presentation?
    • fever
    • myalgia/arthralgia
    • rash: blanching erythematous
    • transaminitis
    • thrombocytopenia
    • meningitis, other neuro: GB, transverse myelitis, mononeuritis
    • lymphadenopathy
  6. what is the spectrum of AIDS? give 3 categories
    • infectious
    • neoplastic: KS, lymphoma, viral oncogenesis, castleman's disease
    • HIV direct effect: enteropathy, dementia, nephropathy
  7. name the bacterial infections in AIDS and what they cause
    • strep pneumo: pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis
    • Non-typhoidal salmonella: sepsis
  8. name the mycobacterial infections in AIDS and what they cause
    • M.Tb: pulmonary, meningitis, disseminated lymphadenitis
    • M. Avium intracellulare: disseminated lymphadenitis, GI infection
  9. name the fungal infections in AIDS and what they cause
    • Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP): pneumonia
    • candidiasis: upper GI infection
    • cryptococcus neoformans (soil): fever, meningitis, skin lesion
  10. name the different herpes virus infections in AIDS and what they cause
    • HSV1: oral ulcers - cold sores. all way through mucosal layers, meningoencephalitis
    • HSV2: genital ulcers
    • VZV: recurrent chickenpox and shingles (multidermatomal)
    • EBV: lymphoma
    • CMV: fever, retinitis, gastroenteritis,
    • HHV6: hairy leukoplakia
    • HHV8: Kaposi's sarcoma, Castleman's disease
  11. name the protozoan infections in AIDS and what they cause
    • toxoplasma gondii: cerebral abscess, retinitis, disseminated (inadequ prep food)
    • leishmania: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy (bite of a sandfly)
  12. what is slim's disease and what are the main causes of it in HIV?
    • infective diarrhoea: CMV, MAI, cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis
    • neoplastic: lymphoma, KS
    • catabolic state
    • HIV: enteropathy
  13. what are the causes of lymphadenopathy in HIV?
    • infection: mTb, MAI, leishmania, histoplasmosis
    • Neoplastic: lymphoma, KS, castleman's
    • HIV: immune activation
  14. what are the different skin diseases in HIV?
    • seborrheic dermatitis
    • molluscum contagiosum
    • shingles
    • KS
    • psoriasis bad
    • bacterial folliculitis
    • cryptococcal disease
  15. what are the GI tract diseases in HIV?
    • candidiasis
    • CMV ulcers
    • hairy leukoplakia
    • KS in mouth
    • HSV oral ulcers
  16. name 2 ano genital disorders in HIV
    • HSV2 genital ulcers
    • papilloma virus causing perianal warts
  17. what are the different respiratory diseases in HIV?
    • pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP)
    • TB
    • Streptococcus pneumonia
    • chronic sinusitis
    • KS in airways
    • lymphadenopathy due to TB or lymphoma
  18. what are the near diseases of HIV?
    • cerebral abscess
    • atrophy and dementia
    • peri ventricular lymphoma
    • meningitis: Strep pneumo, HSV, TB
    • cryptococcal meningitis
    • CMV retinitis
    • toxoplasma retinitis
    • progressive multi leukoencephalopathy: plaques of demyelination
  19. what are the haematological diseases in HIV?
    • lymphoma (EBV)
    • leukopenia
    • anaemia
    • thrombocytopenia
  20. how is consent obtained for a HIV test?
    • 1. no obligation
    • 2. rationale: if pick up can treat earlier and prevent from getting worse
    • 3. simple blood test
    • 4. confidentiality
  21. if a pt is unable to give consent but HIV is suspected, what happens?
    • confidentiality: do not ask family/partner
    • pts best interest
  22. what are the 2 main types of tests for HIV?
    • serology: anti-gp120, p24 antigen
    • molecular: RNA HIV viral load, proviral DNA
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