1. Genetic
    no two organisms are alike unless they are twins or clones
  2. Biodiversiy
    diversity of life on our planet
  3. biodiversity is due to these three things
    • genetic
    • species level
    • ecosystems
  4. what two things cause the genetic make up of biodiversity
    • sexual reproduction
    • mutations
  5. speciation
    formation of a new species due to evolution
  6. evoltuion
    adaptive changes in popuation over time
  7. two main causes of evoltuion
    • genetic diversity
    • natural selection
  8. mutation and sexual shuffling due to sexual reproduction
    genetic diversity
  9. variation among individuals in a population with some more fit and leave more offspring
    natural selections
  10. rates of speciation depend on
    environmental conditions and available resources
  11. ecosystems
    diff types of communities of organisms
  12. intraspecific
    variation within a species
  13. variation in species five differences amongst them
    • age
    • season
    • position in society
    • sexual dimorphism
    • non sex associated variation
  14. variation among species
    interspecific variation
  15. convergent evoltuion
    organisms are similar due to living in similar environments develop analogous structures
  16. similar structures to other organisms but not related
  17. three examples of convergent evolution
    • life in water-streamlined body reduce drag ex dolphins, squid, fish
    • life in air-animals evolved the ability to fly ex bat, dragon fly
    • life in desert-plant groups store water in tissue ex cactus
  18. different pressures causes closely related species to evolve over time wjere homologous structures have diff functions or specialized diff
    homologous structures
  19. the science of classification
  20. three things taxonomy uses in classifying
    • description
    • naming
    • assignment of organisms to more inclusive groups
  21. Systematics
    study of relations among organisms
  22. major goal of systematics and taxonomy
    find the two out of three organisms that are more closely related to each other than the other
  23. phylogeny
    evolutionary history of a species or group of species
  24. rely on enormous amounts of info and researchers personal experience with the species
    evolutionary systematics
  25. phylogenetic systematics another name
  26. uses only shared derived characters to assess relations
  27. what 4 does cladistics use to distinguish between homology and anaology
    • fossil record
    • morphology
    • biochem
    • dna tools
  28. species
    group of organisms that can interbreed
  29. genus
    group of species related by common descent and share certain derived features
  30. higher catergories of the hierarchal system of classification contain a greater number of species and have broader definitions
  31. taxon
    taxonomic group at any level
  32. binomial name
    species name and specific epithet
  33. every species of organism has one and only one specific name, this is governed by
    international codes of nomenclature
  34. taxonomic keys
    dichotomous keys
  35. contains useful into to help identify similar kinds of organisms
    dichotomous key
  36. each statement of a dichotomous key
  37. pair of leads that are contrasting descriptions of certain characteristics
  38. leads in a couplet that both ask questions about the same characters
  39. set of species containing a common ancestor and all of its descendants
  40. set of species containing an ancestral species with some but not all of its descendants
    paraphyletic group
  41. a set of species descended from more than one common ancestor
    polypheletic group
  42. diagram in which each line represents a lineage and the various lineages join to make larger clades
  43. things we might look at in an organism
  44. the different forms that a character can take
    character states
  45. suring the coourse of evolution characters undergo
    character state transformations
  46. the character state transformations go from ancestral _____ to derived ____
    • plesiomorphic
    • apomorphic
  47. synapomorphy
    shared derived character state shared by two taxa in three taxa comparrison
  48. used to define monophyletic groups
  49. symplesiomorphy
    ancestral character state shared by two taxa in a three taxon statement
  50. the appearance of the formaerly ancestral state becomes a new derived state
    character reversal
  51. derived character state that occurs in only one of the three taxa being compared
  52. derived charcter states that evolve more than once independantly  in diff branches of lineage
  53. three requirements for comparing taxa
    • taxa that are to be classified ust be determined
    • classifications are founded on diff in features among diff taxa
    • once characters are identified diff character states must be decided on
  54. parsimony
    the tree with the fewest # of evolutionary events
  55. polarity in taxonomy indicated
    which organisms are apomorphic or plesiomorphic
  56. the entire taxa being studied
  57. any taxon that shares recent common ancestry with the in group but would be considered the sister group of the in group
    out group
  58. long term interactions between organisms
  59. three classifications between the interactions of species
    • effects of the interaction on the species involved
    • physical closeness o the interacting species
    • interactions that do not maintain long term physical contact
  60. short term and one organism benefits at the expense of another (2)
    • predation
    • herbivory
  61. resources needed by one species are als used by another species adverseley affecting growth , survival, and reproduction
  62. three types of symbiosis in which long term interactions occur
    • commensalism
    • mutualism
    • parasitism
  63. benefits one member while the other is uneffected
  64. benefits of commensalism 4
    • shelter
    • food
    • transport
    • support
  65. both organisms gain one or more advantages
  66. one symbiont gains food and other resources at the expense of another
  67. biotic adaptations 2
    • antiherbavore
    • antipredator
  68. due to the evolving of plant defenses how does this effect the plant 2
    • defenses limit the number of species that can survive on eating that plant
    • increasing specialization in animals which increases diversity of animals
  69. 2 ways an animal and plant protects itself from being eaten
    • chemical defense
    • physical defense
  70. chemical defense function for plants
    act as a potent insect repellent
  71. some plants have made their leaves less nutritious for plants while insects have
    evolved ways of overcoming the chemical defenses of certain plants
  72. 2 waysinsects overcome the chemical defenses of the plant
    • detoxifying the toxic compounds
    • storing in tissue which will not cause them to be poisoned
  73. warning coloration
    stored toxins of a plant found in the fly used as the insects own defense
  74. how a plant uses physical defense to not be eaten
    the outside of the plant have for example spines that prevent the animal from eating it
  75. how cactus use physical defense and why
    contain spines that protect the plant from being eaten while protecting their valuable water reserves
  76. two types of mimicry
    • batesian
    • mullerian
  77. mimic an animal that is harmful but the mimicing animal isnt
  78. a common pattern among species that are hamrful
  79. camoflague
    hiding by mtaching the color of a background or looking like something of no interest to the predator
  80. two types of camoflague
    • disruptive
    • counter shading
  81. disruptive coloration
    color patterns that tend to mess with the eye
  82. disruptive coloration ex
  83. counter shading
    when the dorsal coloration is darker than the opposite side
  84. frightening spots tht resemble eyes on the wings of butterflies and moths
    eye spots
  85. found on the tip of wings, helps the bird think it is attacking the moth's head
    small eye spots
  86. red queen hypothesis
    selective pressures for constant adaptation
  87. aposematic coloration
    • animals that are brightly colored so they will not get messed with
    • an underlying defense mechanism
  88. hardy weinberg theorem
    mathematical formula to interrelate allele frequencies with gene frequencies in a population
  89. allele frequencies equation
  90. genotype frequencies equation
  91. if there are more than 2 alleles for a particular gene in a population the allele frequency equation looks like
  92. composition of alleles in a population
    gene pool
  93. HW theorem only works if
    no forces are operating to hange allele frequencies in a population over time
  94. HW equilibrium can only be maintained if these 5 occur
    • large populations
    • no migration (population stays isolated)
    • no mutations (no change in gene pool)
    • all genotypes are equal in success
    • mating is random
  95. if  assortive (random) mating occurs what will happen to genotype frequencies and allele frequencies
    genotype frequencies will change over time while allele frequencies remain the same
  96. 3 factors that change the allele frequencies
    • natural select
    • gene flow
    • genetic drift
  97. only this helps adapt the population to its environment and is called the darwin force
    nat select
  98. how does gene flow/migration affect genotype frequencies
    populations may gain or lose alleles and diff pop become more similar
  99. help drive evolution but have little effect on gene pools or large populations
  100. found effect
    a few individuals colonize an isolated island, small sample size the less gene pool will reflect the larger pop of orignal colonists
  101. chance events cause the frequencies of alleles in a small pop to drift randomly from one gen to the next
    genetic drift
  102. genetic drift only effects whht size populations
    those below ~100 indivuduals
  103. for HW = to occur all individuals in poplations must
    equal in the ability to reproduce
  104. 4 phyla of fungi kingdom
    • chytridiomycota
    • zygomycota
    • basidiomycota
    • ascomycota
  105. saprobes
  106. only fungi that has flagellated gametes and spores
  107. no septa
  108. alternation of gen with 2 steps equally dominant
    sporic meiosis
  109. produces gametes by mitosis and will eventually fuse
  110. two stages of sporic meiosis
    • gametophyte
    • sporophyte
  111. haploid stage of sporic meiosis
  112. diploid stage of sporic meiosus
  113. produces haploid spores by meiosis which are released from the parent plant
  114. after they settle down they develop into the gametophyte. what is the stage of sporic meiosis is this
    sporophyte stage
  115. can reproduce sexually and asexually
    sporic meiosis
  116. produces haploid spores and produce
  117. produce asexual diploid spores to reproduce the parent
  118. female gametes of chytrids release this hormone that attracts male gametes
  119. sirenin
  120. responsible for the irish potato famine
  121. all cell walls of the fungi kingdom are made of
  122. cell walls are made of cellulose instead of chitin
  123. dominated by diploid stage, gametes formed dicrectly by meiosis and fusion recovers diploid condition
    gametic meiosis
  124. eggs that develop within female gametangium
  125. male gametangium
  126. oospore
  127. lower fungi
  128. higher fungi
    • zygo
    • asco
    • basidio
  129. coenocytic
    • zygo
    • chytrid

    • asco
    • basidio
  130. sexual reproduction of zygotic meiosis is
    dominated by haploid stage
  131. gametes in this stage are produced by mitosis and following fusion of the gamete into a zygote
    zygotic meiosis
  132. 2 evidence of endosymbiosis
    • similar inner membrane functions and structures
    • own circular DNA
Card Set
Quiz #1