Altered Skin Integrity

  1. Describe the epidermis
    Outler layer of skin made of dead squamous cells and melanocytes which gives us pigmentation.
  2. Describe the dermis
    Provides support for the epidermis and gives it flexibility and strength.

    Made of fat and collagen fibers
  3. Eccrine sweat glands
    • Provides heat regulation, found on the :
    • forehad
    • palms and soles of feet
  4. Apocrine Sweat Glands
    Causes body odor and found in the axillary and genital areas
  5. Macule
    flat spot less than 1 cm that changes color(freckle or mole)
  6. Patch
    Larger than 1 cm flat, changes color (Cafe au Lait)
  7. Papule
    warts, elevated mole....less than 1 cm
  8. Plaque
    larger than 1 cm, superficial and elevated, plateau like

  9. Nodule
    Lipoma or fatty tumor
  10. Cyst
    Large nodule filled with liquid or semi solid material
  11. Vesicle
  12. Wheal
    Hive, insect bite, TB skin test
  13. Abrasion
    oozing, scraping surface, loss of superficial structure of skin
  14. Ulceration
    Loss of deeper layers...scooped out
  15. Petechiae
    small, flat, round purplish, red spot.

    Interadermal or submucosal hemorrhage
  16. Ecchymosis
    Discoloration, reddish purple, escape of blood in to tissues

    Black and Blue marks
  17. When assessing dark skin remember:
    • Take a picture, it shows variations better.
    • Color change is less obvious
    • Palpate for warm, smooth or hard spots
  18. Erythema
    dark skin turning purple/gray with inflammation
  19. How do I tell if a black person has jaundice?
    Check their palate...cuz sclera always looks yellowish.
  20. What does skin of a dark person look like if they are in trouble perfusion wise?
    • white, grey.
    • Lips, mucous membrane, conjunctiva and nail beds ashen grey or yellow brown.
  21. How to you confirm shock with a black person?
    Vital signs and O2 saturation
  22. Whats a discrete, individual or separate lesion?
    Insect bite
  23. What's it called when a lesion merges or they run together?
    Measles, chicken pox, roseola

  24. Whats it called when lesions are arranged in a circular pattern?
    Ring Worm

  25. Whats it called when you have lesions scattered all over the body?

  26. What's it called when you have acluster of lesions in one spot?
    Herpes Simplex

  27. Whats it called when lesions form a line?
    Poison Ivy and Oak

  28. Whats it called when lesions are arranged in concentric circles?

  29. Whats it called when there's a linear arrangement along a nerve root?
    Herpes Zoster, Shingles, Chicken Pox

  30. Signs of Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Red
    • Scaly
    • slightly elevated
  31. Dangers of Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Can change to malignancy if get it on ear, nose, lips
  32. Signs of Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Red
    • scaly
    • plaque like macule on the trunk

  33. Both Basal Cell and Squamous Cell carcinoma effect:
    Surface Epithelium
  34. Malignant Melanoma is
    abnormal growth of melanocytes

    Rapidly metastasizes
  35. Where do you find melanoma?
    Comes from a mole on the head, trunk or legs
  36. What puts a person at greatest risk for melanoma?
    • Ultraviolet Radiation
    • blistering sunburns at a young age (3 or more)
    • working outdoors
    • sunlamps and tanning beds
  37. SCC and BCC comes from?
    they are both CARCINOMAS that are found on surface epithelium in areas covering organs
  38. Malignant Melanoma comes from?
    CANCER in melanocytes of the skin
  39. Malignant Melanoma is most common in....
    light skinned people with blue green eyes, freckles and those that sunburn easily
  40. ABCD warning signs of Malignant Melanoma
    • A=asymmetry (irregular surface or larger on one side than the other
    • B= Border Irregularity
    • C=Color changes (many colors in 1 mole)
    • D=Diameter Large (or sudden growth in size)
  41. Dysplastic Nevi
    unusual mole that is larger than 5 mm that is likely to progress to malignant melanoma
  42. What does age have to do with skin cancer?
    Skin cant repair its DNA any more
  43. How do you prevent skin cancer?
    • Inspect all moles....especially for Pigmented Nevi
    • Avoid unnecessary sun exposure
    • Use broadspectrum sun protection of SPF 15 or higher
  44. Treatment of skin cancer:
    • Wide excision to fascia and lymph node eval.
    • Skin graft
    • Chemo
  45. How do you treat skin after intervention of skin cancer?
    • Change, clean and redress wound
    • Watch for bleeding and infection
    • Emollient cream to decrease drying
Card Set
Altered Skin Integrity
Altered Skin Integrity