1. How many bones of the head
  2. Crainial bones
    • 8 total bones:
    • frontal bone (1)
    • parietal bone (2)
    • occipital bone (1)
    • temporal bone (2)
    • sphenoid bone (1)
    • ethmoid bone (1)
  3. Facial bones:
    • 14 total:
    • zygomatic bone (2)
    • Maxilla (2)
    • Palatine bone (2)
    • nasal bone (2)
    • Lacrimal bone (2)
    • Vomer (1)
    • Inferior nasal concha (2)
    • Mandible (1)
  4. Auditory ossicles:
    • All paired, 6 total:
    • Malleus (2)
    • Incus (2)
    • Stapes (2)
  5. Bones of the head include:
    • 22 total bones (auditory ossicles and hyoid bone not included) 6 are paired, the other 8 are not
    • 8 neurocranium
    • 14 viscerocranium (face)
    • 6 auditory ossicles
    • 1 hyoid bond
  6. What bones form the skull
    Neurocranium and viscerocranium - collectively termed the skull
  7. What caranial bones are paired
    Parietal bone and temporal bone
  8. What viscerocranium bones are paired
    • zygomatice bone
    • maxilla
    • palatine bone
    • nasal bone
    • lacrimal bone
    • inferior nasal concha
  9. what aditory ossicles are paired
    all of them: Malleus, incus and stapes
  10. What head bone has it's own subgroup
    hyoid bone, not paired
  11. calvaria
    the dome-like "roof" of the cranial cavity
  12. temporal fossa
    • the depression on the side of the skull anterior and slightly superior to the ears
    • "temples"
  13. zygomatic arch
    a horizontally oriented bony bridge formed btwn the temporal and zygomatic bones located about halfway btwn the eye and the ear
  14. orbit
    • houses the eyeball
    • has 7 osseous components: maxilla, frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, lacrimal, ethmoid, and palatine bones
  15. Three openings in the posterior aspect of the orbit of the sphenoid bone:
    • Optic canal of the sphenoid bone: the small medial opening
    • Superior orbital fissure: the superior part of the larger, elongated opening
    • Inferior orbital fissure: the inferior part of the larger, elongated opening
  16. foramen magnum
    the large passageway in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
  17. jugular foramen
    • Left and Right
    • the paired neurovascular passageway located in a few millimeters lateral to the anterior limit of the foramen magnum of the occipital and temporal bones
  18. foramen lacerum
    • Left and Right
    • The pair of foamina anterior to the foramen magnum (and one cm. on either side of the midline)
    • In life these foramina are filled with cartilage and do not transmit any structures of significance
  19. bony palate
    • forms the bony roof of the oral cavity
    • composed of parts of the maxillae and the palatine bones
  20. posterior cranial fossa
    • the largest and deepest of the three fossae
    • the foramen magnum is located therein
  21. middle cranial fossa
    formed by the sphenoid bone centrally and parts of the temporal bones laterally
  22. anterior cranial fossa
    formed primarily by the frontal bone with small contributions from the sphenoid and ethmoid bones
  23. bones forming the neurocranium
    • "brain case"
    • 8 total including
    • parietal bone (2)
    • temporal bone (2)
    • frontal bone (1)
    • occipital bone (1)
    • sphenoid bone (1)
    • ethmoid bone (1)
  24. chondrocranium
    that portion of the floor of the neurocranium formed by endochondral ossification
  25. supraorbital margin of the frontal bone
    forms the superior limit of the anterior aspect of the orbit
  26. three main subdivisions of the temporal bone
    • petrous - houses the inter ear
    • tympanic
    • squamous parts
  27. where does the facial nerve emerge through?
    stylomastoid foramen of the temporal bone
  28. condyles of the occipital bone
    • left and right
    • articular projections on each side of the foramen magnum
    • articulate with the atlas
  29. sphenoidal sinus
    Air-filled diverticuli of the nasal cavity within the body of the sphenoid bone
  30. what does the oval foramina of the sphenoid bone transmit?
    maxillary nerves
  31. cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
    have the cribriform foramina of the ethmoid bone, which fibers of the olfactory nerves pass through to reach the nasal mucosa
  32. vomer
    • unpaired flat bone, forms the inferior part of the nasal septum
    • septum is also partly formed by cartilage and partly by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
    • articulates with the L&R maxilla, L&R palatine bones, sphenoid bone and ethmoid bone
  33. infraorbital foramen of the maxilla
    opening under each orbit that transmits the infraorbital nerve and vessels
  34. two processes that meet and form the zygomatic arch
    • "check bone"
    • temporal process of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone
  35. What has two heads, necks and bodies?
    the mandible
  36. purpose of the hyoid bone
    • serves as a point of attachment for several muscles of the tongue and neck
    • is "buried" in skeletal muscle in the upper cervical region
  37. vertebral canal
    the collective vertebral foramina
  38. # of vertebra in each divided group of vertebral column
    • Cervical 7
    • Thoracic 12
    • Lumbar 5
  39. What's unique with cervical vertebra
    • hole in each transverse process termed the transverse foramen of a cervical vertebra
    • small vertebral bodies
  40. Atlas
    • C1, atypical in several respects:
    • the "body" of the atlas is so reduced it's termed the "anterior arch of the atlas"
    • The "arch" of the atlas is termed "posterior arch of the atlas" to distinguish it nomenclatrually from it's posterior counterpart
    • lateral aspects of the atlas where it's two arches join are the right and left lateral masses of the atlas. penetrated by transverse foramina
  41. Axis
    • C2
    • body has a superior "tooth-like" profection termed the dens of the axis, articulates with the fovea dentis (developmentally, the dens is considered to be part of the body of the the atlas that fuses, instead, to the body of the axis
  42. characteristic feature of thoracic vertebra
    presence of costal fovea
  43. characteristics of lumbar vertebra
    • 5, bodies are larger than the vertebrae above them (since they carry considerable weight)
    • characterized by their well developed transverse processes.
    • articular processes are oriented in sagittal planes allowing for more forward/backward bending at the joint
  44. sacral vertebrae
    • developmentally, there are usually 5 of them known as S1-S5, although they do fuse together to form one definitive bone know as the bony sacrum (fuse at transverse processes of sacral vertebrae)
    • transmits the upper body weight to the inferior limbs through the sacroiliac joints
  45. pelvic surface of the sacral bone
    anterior aspect of the bony sacrum so named because it faces the pelvic cavity
  46. anterior and posterior aspects of the sacral bone at called?
    • Anterior = Pelvic surface of the sacral bone
    • Posterior = Dorsal surface of the sacral bone
  47. human vertebral formula
  48. Thoracic cage includes
    • the sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, and all 12 PAIRS of ribs
    • a total of 37 bones
  49. how many pairs of ribs & what are the main parts
    • 12
    • head, neck, and body
  50. head of a rib
    the rounded portion which articulates with the costal fovea of the bodies of the vertebrae
  51. Articular surfaces of the head of a rib
    • the articular surface of the head is divided into superior and inferior parts by the crest of the head
    • *the inferior part of the head typically articulates with the superior
    • aspect of the body of the numerically corresponding thoracic vertebra
    • *The superior part of the head articulates with the inferior aspect of the vertebra immediately above
    • *Heads of ribs 1, 10, 11 and 12 typically articulate only with the thoracic vertebra of the same # (thus, they have undivided articular surfaces)
  52. Body of a rib
    major portion of a rib beginning at and including the tubercle, costal angle, and costal groove
  53. tubercle of a rib
    the articular surface of the costal tubercle articulates with the costal fovea of the transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
  54. intercostal spaces
    • 11 total, the spaces btwn the ribs
    • numbered 1-11
    • occupied by intercostal muscles and by an intercostal artery, vein and nerve
  55. costal cartilage
    • attached on each rib to the anteromedial end of it's body
    • ribs 1-7 join the sternum directly, "true ribs"
    • ribe 8-10 attach to each other and to that of rib 7 to form the costal arch
    • costal cartilages of ribs 11-12 end within the musculature of the body wall. These last two "false ribs" are also called "floating ribs" no contact with the sternum
  56. ribs with distinguishing features
    • the first rib is short, tightly curved, and flattened
    • the 11th rib has a very small tubercle
    • the 12th rib lacks a tubercle, angle, and groove
  57. main pieces of the sternum
    • manubrium of the sternum
    • body of the sternum
    • xiphoid process of the sternum
  58. superior thoracic opening
    the opening at the top of the thoracic cage formed by the first vertebra, fist pair of ribs, and the manubrium of the sternum
  59. inferior thoracic opening
    the larger opening at the bottom of the thoracic cage
  60. fontanels (also spelled fontanelles)
    • the areas of soft (connective) tissue which separate the thin plates of bone forming the early neurocranium
    • 6 total; 2 are paired, 2 are not
    • Anterior fontanel, Posterior fontanel, anterolateral (sphenoidal) fontanels, and posterolateral (mastoid) fontanels
  61. thoracotomies
    • incisions into the thoracic cavity
    • may be performed midsternally or intercostally
Card Set
Osteology Axial