General Science

  1. Cells
    • - the basic unit of life.
    • - human body over 75 trillion cells.
  2. Prokaryotic
    • - one of the type of cells.
    • - has no membrane-bound structures inside the cell.
    • - Ex: bacteria
  3. Eukaryotic
    • - one of two types of cell.
    • - has internal membrane-bound structure inside the cell.
    • - Ex: protists, fungi, plans, and animals.
  4. Cells are made of several different parts:
    including an outer membrane, organelles, and a large amount of mass called cytoplasm.
  5. Cell Membrane
    • - is the dictator of the cell
    • - it determines what goes into or out of the cell.
  6. Cytoplasm
    - a gelatin-like material that fills the cell.
  7. Organelles
    • - specialized parts that move around the cell and perform functions that are necessary of life.
    • - Ex: cell nucleus, vacuoles, and mitochondria
  8. Nucleus
    • - membrane that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.
    • - the most prominent organelle in the cell.
    • - contain chromosomes that are made up of DNA.
  9. Vacuoles
    • - the storage containers of the cell.
    • - may store waste until it is eliminated or food unit it is needed.
  10. Mitochondria
    - energy for the cell is produced by mitochondria through a process called respiration.
  11. The basic difference between plant and animal
    plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, and animal cells do not.
  12. Cell Walls
    • - only in plant.
    • - gice the cell a firmer shape and support.
  13. Chloroplast
    • - organelles in plant cell.
    • - these contain chlorophyll, which uses the process of photosynthesis to make food for the plant cells.
  14. Photosynthesis process
    •                     Light
    • Carbon Dioxide + Water => Glucose + Oxygen
    •                  Chlorophyll
  15. DNA (deoxyribonucleic Acid)
    • - determines how one looks and how one functions.
    • - DNA molecule consists of two long strands that form a double helix.
    • - DNA has a sugar component, a phosphate component, and four different bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
  16. Adenine is always pair with
    Thymine
  17. Cytosine is always pair with
    Guanine
  18. Genes
    • - the instruction for the appearance and function of the new organism are contained in units called genes
    • - which are parts of DNA.
  19. Mitosis
    • - one of two reasons for the cell division.
    • - when cells are repacing themselves beucase they are old or worn-out.

    Chart

    • - for cell division
    • - nucleus divides once
    • - number of cells formed = 2
    • - chromosomes in each new cell = 46
  20. Meiosis
    • - one of two reasons for cell division.
    • - takes place with sex cell formation.
    • - cells with only 23 chromosomes are formed so that when an egg and a sperm join up, they have the full set of 46 chromosomes.

    Chart

    • - for sex cell formation
    • - nucleus divides twice
    • - number of cells formed = 4
    • - chromosomes in each new cell =23
  21. Viruses
    • - a piece of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating.
    • - do not have a nucleus or other organelles.
    • - need host in order to reproduce and function.
    • - cannot generate or store energy, but take their energy from the host.
    • - all viruses contain nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (but not both), and a protein coat.
  22. Scientist use an ordered ______ (classification system) to classify living things.
    Taxonomy
  23. The levels within Taxonomy (descending order)
    • - kingdom
    • - phylum/division
    • - class
    • - order
    • - family
    • - genus
    • - species
  24. All life is categorized into five kingdoms
    • - monera
    • - protista
    • - fungi
    • - plantae
    • - animalia
  25. Monera
    • - (five kingdoms)
    • - one-celled or a colony of cells, decomposes and parasites, move in water, and both producers and consumers.
    • - Ex: bacteria, blue green algae
  26. Protista
    • - (five kingdoms)
    • - one celled or multicelled, absorb food , move with flagella, both asexual and sexual reproduction, producers and consumers.
    • - Ex: plankton, algae, amoeba, protozoans
  27. Fungi
    • - (five kingdom)
    • - one-celled and multicelled, decomposes, parasites, absorb food, asexual, reproduction and budding, consumers.
    • - Ex: mushrooms, molds, mildew, yeast, fungi
  28. Plantae
    • - (five kingdom)
    • - multicelled, photosynthesis, mostly producers
    • - Ex: angiosperms, gymnosperms, mosses, ferns
  29. Animalia
    • - (five kingdom)
    • - multicelled, parasites, prey, both asexual and sexual reproduction, consumers.
    • - Ex: sponges, worms, insects, starfish, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, gorilla, humans.
  30. Human beings can be categorized according to taxonomy in this way:
    • - kingdom -> animalia
    • - phylum/division -> chordates
    • - class -> mammals
    • - order -> primates
    • - family -> hominidae
    • - genus -> homo
    • - species -> sapiens
    • - Scientific Names -> Homo sapiens
  31. Producer
    • - use an outside energy source, such as sunlight, to produce energy.
    • - most producers have chlorophyll (plant, but not all)
  32. Consumer
    - cannot make their own energy; to live, they need to eat other organisms
  33. Botany
    - scientific study of plants.
  34. Vascular
    - plants transport water from the roots to the stems and to the leaves by means of tubelike structures.
  35. Nonvascular
    - plants absorb water only through their surfaces.
  36. Cotyledon
    - seeds store food for the growing plant; the part of the seed that stores the food.
  37. Monocots
    - seeds have one cotyledon.
  38. Dicots
    - seeds have two and more cotyledon.
  39. Annuals
    • - plants go through their entire life cycle, for germination through seed production to death, in one growing season.
    • - Ex: corn, zinnias, beans, marigolds, and mums all have to be plant each year.
  40. Biennials
    • - plan have life cycle of two years.
    • - Ex: onions, raspberries, hollyhocks, and carrots.
  41. Perennial
    • - plant live for many years.
    • - parts of the plant may die back during the winter, but the plant will grow back in the spring.
  42. Deciduous
    • - plant, including shrubs and trees, lose their leaves in the winter.
    • - Ex: maple and oak
  43. Evergreen
    - plant keep their leaves or needles throughout the year, sometimes shedding only old leaves or needles that are more than two years old.
  44. Root
    - absorbing nutrients and water, anchoring the plant into the soil, holding up the stem and leaves, and storing food.
  45. There are two types or root systems:
    -taproot system and a fibrous root system.
  46. Taproot system
    • - has one fat or sturdy root, with just a few branching roots.
    • - Ex: carrots, radishes, and parsnips.
  47. Fibrous root system
    - has many branched roots.
  48. Stem
    • - main trunk of a plant
    • - major functions of the stem is to move water, nutrients, and food through the plant. (using vascular system)
  49. Phloem tubes
    - move food from the roots through the stem to the leaves.
  50. Xylem tubes
    - move minerals and water.
  51. Leaves
    - major job is to make food for the plant.
  52. Cuticle
    • - a protective layer on leaves.
    • - it reduces the evaporation of the water from the plant and helps to protect the plant from disease-causing organisms.
  53. Stomata
    • - a tiny opening on leaves.
    • - it enable the plant to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere.
  54. Guard Cells
    - cover the stomata openings and regulate the exchange of water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide into and out of the stoma
  55. Flowers
    - the main job of flowers is sexual reproduction or seed production.
  56. Pistil
    • - is the female portion of the flowers
    • - it includes the stigma, the surface that captures and holds pollen, and style, the area between the stigma and the ovaries.
  57. Stamen
    • - is the make portion of the flower.
    • - it includes the filament that holds the anther.
  58. Anther
    - where the pollen is formed and released.
  59. Tropisms
    - plants respond either positively or negatively to various stimuli (gravity, light, or touch).
  60. Gravitropism
    - plants response to gravity.
  61. Phototropism
    - plants respond to light.
  62. Categorizing animals
    - animals are generally categorized in terms of whether or not they have backbone.
  63. Vertebrates
    - animal that have backbone.
  64. Invertebrates
    • - animal do not have backbone.
    • - Ex: worm
  65. Mollusks
    • - invertebrates, like snails, have soft bodies, but have developed a hard shell for protection.
    • - can live in water or on land
    • - Ex: snails, clams, mussels, and squid.
  66. Exoskeletons
    • - invertebrates have tough coatings made of chitin on the outside of their bodies.
    • - they also have joined legs and segmented body.
    • - aka. arthopods.
    • - Ex: centipedes, millipedes, insect, shrimp, lobsters, and crabs.
  67. Herbivores
    - animals that primarily eat plants.
  68. Carnivores
    - animal that feed mostly on meat.
  69. Omnivores
    - animal (human) eat both plants and meat.
  70. Molar teeth
    - teeth are designed for grinding tough plant fibers.
  71. Cold-blooded animal
    • - if animal's body temperature follows or matches the external temperature around it.
    • - Ex: fish, amphibians, and reptiles.
  72. Warm-blooded animal
    • - animal can control their body temperature.
    • - Ex: only bird and mammals.
    • - mammals use their hair, skin, or fur to adapt to temperature changes.
  73. Biosphere
    - the sum of all the places on Earth where life can exist.
  74. Ecosystem
    - collection of all the living creatures and nonliving features or conditions in a particular environment.
  75. Ecology
    - the study of ecosystem - the interactions between and among these living creatures and nonliving features.
  76. Biodiversity
    • - is the variety of life forms that exist.
    • - biodiversity tends to increase as one approaches the equator.
    • - warmer weather tends to support biodiversity.
  77. Global warming
    • - resulting from sending carbon dioxide into the atmosphere can raise temperatures and affect biodiversity.
    • - the thinning of the ozone layer in the atmosphere can increase the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UV) the reaches Earth.
Author
datng8
ID
200798
Card Set
General Science
Description
plant and animal terminology for the ASVAB test
Updated