- - the basic unit of life.
- - human body over 75 trillion cells.
- - one of the type of cells.
- - has no membrane-bound structures inside the cell.
- - Ex: bacteria
- - one of two types of cell.
- - has internal membrane-bound structure inside the cell.
- - Ex: protists, fungi, plans, and animals.
Cells are made of several different parts:
including an outer membrane, organelles, and a large amount of mass called cytoplasm.
- - is the dictator of the cell
- - it determines what goes into or out of the cell.
- a gelatin-like material that fills the cell.
- - specialized parts that move around the cell and perform functions that are necessary of life.
- - Ex: cell nucleus, vacuoles, and mitochondria
- - membrane that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.
- - the most prominent organelle in the cell.
- - contain chromosomes that are made up of DNA.
- - the storage containers of the cell.
- - may store waste until it is eliminated or food unit it is needed.
- energy for the cell is produced by mitochondria through a process called respiration.
The basic difference between plant and animal
plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, and animal cells do not.
- - only in plant.
- - gice the cell a firmer shape and support.
- - organelles in plant cell.
- - these contain chlorophyll, which uses the process of photosynthesis to make food for the plant cells.
- Carbon Dioxide + Water => Glucose + Oxygen
DNA (deoxyribonucleic Acid)
- - determines how one looks and how one functions.
- - DNA molecule consists of two long strands that form a double helix.
- - DNA has a sugar component, a phosphate component, and four different bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Adenine is always pair with
Cytosine is always pair with
- - the instruction for the appearance and function of the new organism are contained in units called genes
- - which are parts of DNA.
- - one of two reasons for the cell division.
- - when cells are repacing themselves beucase they are old or worn-out.
- - for cell division
- - nucleus divides once
- - number of cells formed = 2
- - chromosomes in each new cell = 46
- - one of two reasons for cell division.
- - takes place with sex cell formation.
- - cells with only 23 chromosomes are formed so that when an egg and a sperm join up, they have the full set of 46 chromosomes.
- - for sex cell formation
- - nucleus divides twice
- - number of cells formed = 4
- - chromosomes in each new cell =23
- - a piece of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating.
- - do not have a nucleus or other organelles.
- - need host in order to reproduce and function.
- - cannot generate or store energy, but take their energy from the host.
- - all viruses contain nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (but not both), and a protein coat.
Scientist use an ordered ______ (classification system) to classify living things.
The levels within Taxonomy (descending order)
- - kingdom
- - phylum/division
- - class
- - order
- - family
- - genus
- - species
All life is categorized into five kingdoms
- - monera
- - protista
- - fungi
- - plantae
- - animalia
- - (five kingdoms)
- - one-celled or a colony of cells, decomposes and parasites, move in water, and both producers and consumers.
- - Ex: bacteria, blue green algae
- - (five kingdoms)
- - one celled or multicelled, absorb food , move with flagella, both asexual and sexual reproduction, producers and consumers.
- - Ex: plankton, algae, amoeba, protozoans
- - (five kingdom)
- - one-celled and multicelled, decomposes, parasites, absorb food, asexual, reproduction and budding, consumers.
- - Ex: mushrooms, molds, mildew, yeast, fungi
- - (five kingdom)
- - multicelled, photosynthesis, mostly producers
- - Ex: angiosperms, gymnosperms, mosses, ferns
- - (five kingdom)
- - multicelled, parasites, prey, both asexual and sexual reproduction, consumers.
- - Ex: sponges, worms, insects, starfish, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, gorilla, humans.
Human beings can be categorized according to taxonomy in this way:
- - kingdom -> animalia
- - phylum/division -> chordates
- - class -> mammals
- - order -> primates
- - family -> hominidae
- - genus -> homo
- - species -> sapiens
- - Scientific Names -> Homo sapiens
- - use an outside energy source, such as sunlight, to produce energy.
- - most producers have chlorophyll (plant, but not all)
- cannot make their own energy; to live, they need to eat other organisms
- scientific study of plants.
- plants transport water from the roots to the stems and to the leaves by means of tubelike structures.
- plants absorb water only through their surfaces.
- seeds store food for the growing plant; the part of the seed that stores the food.
- seeds have one cotyledon.
- seeds have two and more cotyledon.
- - plants go through their entire life cycle, for germination through seed production to death, in one growing season.
- - Ex: corn, zinnias, beans, marigolds, and mums all have to be plant each year.
- - plan have life cycle of two years.
- - Ex: onions, raspberries, hollyhocks, and carrots.
- - plant live for many years.
- - parts of the plant may die back during the winter, but the plant will grow back in the spring.
- - plant, including shrubs and trees, lose their leaves in the winter.
- - Ex: maple and oak
- plant keep their leaves or needles throughout the year, sometimes shedding only old leaves or needles that are more than two years old.
- absorbing nutrients and water, anchoring the plant into the soil, holding up the stem and leaves, and storing food.
There are two types or root systems:
-taproot system and a fibrous root system.
- - has one fat or sturdy root, with just a few branching roots.
- - Ex: carrots, radishes, and parsnips.
Fibrous root system
- has many branched roots.
- - main trunk of a plant
- - major functions of the stem is to move water, nutrients, and food through the plant. (using vascular system)
- move food from the roots through the stem to the leaves.
- move minerals and water.
- major job is to make food for the plant.
- - a protective layer on leaves.
- - it reduces the evaporation of the water from the plant and helps to protect the plant from disease-causing organisms.
- - a tiny opening on leaves.
- - it enable the plant to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere.
- cover the stomata openings and regulate the exchange of water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide into and out of the stoma
- the main job of flowers is sexual reproduction or seed production.
- - is the female portion of the flowers
- - it includes the stigma, the surface that captures and holds pollen, and style, the area between the stigma and the ovaries.
- - is the make portion of the flower.
- - it includes the filament that holds the anther.
- where the pollen is formed and released.
- plants respond either positively or negatively to various stimuli (gravity, light, or touch).
- plants response to gravity.
- plants respond to light.
- animals are generally categorized in terms of whether or not they have backbone.
- animal that have backbone.
- - animal do not have backbone.
- - Ex: worm
- - invertebrates, like snails, have soft bodies, but have developed a hard shell for protection.
- - can live in water or on land
- - Ex: snails, clams, mussels, and squid.
- - invertebrates have tough coatings made of chitin on the outside of their bodies.
- - they also have joined legs and segmented body.
- - aka. arthopods.
- - Ex: centipedes, millipedes, insect, shrimp, lobsters, and crabs.
- animals that primarily eat plants.
- animal that feed mostly on meat.
- animal (human) eat both plants and meat.
- teeth are designed for grinding tough plant fibers.
- - if animal's body temperature follows or matches the external temperature around it.
- - Ex: fish, amphibians, and reptiles.
- - animal can control their body temperature.
- - Ex: only bird and mammals.
- - mammals use their hair, skin, or fur to adapt to temperature changes.
- the sum of all the places on Earth where life can exist.
- collection of all the living creatures and nonliving features or conditions in a particular environment.
- the study of ecosystem - the interactions between and among these living creatures and nonliving features.
- - is the variety of life forms that exist.
- - biodiversity tends to increase as one approaches the equator.
- - warmer weather tends to support biodiversity.
- - resulting from sending carbon dioxide into the atmosphere can raise temperatures and affect biodiversity.
- - the thinning of the ozone layer in the atmosphere can increase the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UV) the reaches Earth.