________ Values are reflected in the way employees actually behave.
Espoused values are what we say we value. These can be found in:
(Which of the following would you not find espoused values ie. Financial reports….)
- Annual Reports
- Employee Handbooks
- Quarterly Employee Newsletters
Deeply held beliefs that guide behavior and tell members of an organization how to perceive and think about things
The three perspectives needed for the relationship of Culture to Performance:
(Which of the following would not be correct?)
- Strong Culture Perspective
- Fit Perspective
- Adaptation Perspective
Symbols communicate organizational culture by unspoken messages. Employees’ _________, __________, and __________ are indicative of an organization’s culture.
(Which does not belong?)
- Dress Codes
- Performance Expectations of Employees
- Use of Job Titles
Everyday organizational practices that are repeated over and over
________ are the most effective way to reinforce organizational values
A culture that encourages confidence and risk taking among employees, has leadership that produces change, and focuses on the changing needs of customers
symbols of culture in the physical and
social environment. Most visible and accessible level of culture
A pattern of basic assumptions that are considered valid and that are taught
to new members as the way to perceive, think, and feel in the organization.
Mechanistic structure emphasizes structured activities, specialized tasks, and
centralized decision making. In mechanistic structures __________, __________, and __________ are high.
formalization, specialization, and centralization
What are the 4 Contextual Variables:
- 1. Size
- 2. Technology
- 3. Environment
- 4. Strategy and Goals
The number of employees reporting to a
Span of Management (Span of Control)
In regards to Specialization, sometimes called ______________, is the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided
into separate jobs.
division of labor
Tall organizational structures are usually associated with ___________.
___________ is the degree to which the organization role is defined by formal documentation. An example would be __________, ____________, _______ and _________.
organizational policies, procedures, rules and regulations
Management information systems are both a ____________ and ________ Integration Device
Vertical and Horizontal
The process of coordinating the different parts of an organization.
_________ organizations have less vertical differentiation
The process of deciding how to divide the work in an organization
The ________________ shows the formal lines of authority and the supervisor-employee reporting relationships.
_____________ is the process of constructing and adjusting an organization’s structure to achieve its goals. The process begins with the ______________.
Organizational design / Organization’s Goals
The process by which newcomers are transformed from outsiders to participating, effective members of an organization
Newcomers who are successfully socialized should exhibit:
(The question will ask which is the exception)
The intent to stay with the organization
Low levels of distress symptoms
The primary purpose of socialization is the ___________ to the new organization members.
Transmission of Core Values
An _________ organizational culture can be developed through executive role modeling, disseminating a code of ethics and conduct, and encouraging whistle-blowing.
Three characteristics of the organizations that
will succeed in meeting the competitive challenges that businesses face
Adaptiveness, Flexibility, and Responsiveness
Most organizations center on the idea that they must create a culture that encourages _________.
Change in which the organization moves to a radically different, and sometimes unknown, future state. (Examples: A new mission, culture, strategy, and goals)
An individual or group from within or outside the company whose role involves the
stimulation, guidance, and stabilization of change
The Change Agent (The “Doer”)
What are the 3 Positive Internal Change Agents?
1. Will have valuable insights into both the formal and informal organization.
- 2. Will be aware of the organization’s political system, understanding potential
- sources of support and segments where resistance could arise.
3. Will have to live with the outcomes of the decision.
A positive feature of the __________ is that they will be preferred by employees because of their impartiality.
External Change Agent
Regarding reasons why people resist change, change often brings with it substantial uncertainty. This creates __________.
Fear of the Unknown
Organizational change may shift the existing balance of power in the organization. Internally initiated change may stall or be rendered unsuccessful because of ___________.
3 key strategies for managing resistance to change are:
- 1. Communication
- 2. Participation
- 3. Empathy and Support
According to Lewin's Model for Change, __________ is movement away from the status quo.
The 3rd step in Lewin's Model for change is _____________.
(Unfreezing, Moving, Re-Freezing)
Re-Freezing is the establishment of the ________.
New Status Quo
A systematic approach to organizational improvement that applies behavioral science theory and research in order to increase individual and organizational well-being and effectiveness.
List of Group-Focused Techniques for OD Intervention:
- Survey Feedback
- Management By Objectives (MBO)
- Product and Service Quality Programs
- Team Building
- Process Consultation
(Question will read...Which one of the is NOT a technique?)