Biomedical Core

  1. Gonadal Hormones:

    The ovaries and the testes respond to
    FSH and LH secretion from the anterior pituitary
  2. Ovaries
    *Estrogen- Development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and sex characteristics

    *Progesterone- Prepares the uterin lining (endometrium) for implantation
  3. Testes

    -sperm production

    -Development and maintenance of masculine sex characteristics
  4. Functions:

    Estrogens and Progesterone
    -Regulate the female reproductive cycle

    -Maintain pregnancy

    -Breast development and maturation

    -Widening of the hips

    -Adipose tissue deposition in the breasts around the hips
  5. Functions:

    -Sperm production

    -Hair growth patterns

    -Increased skeletal and muscular growth

    -Voice changes
  6. Pineal gland is part of the
  7. The pineal gland secretes the hormone

    -controls seasonal and daily cycles

    -more released during darkness that light

    -thought to promote sleepiness
  8. It is theorized that melatonin assists with the setting of the daily
    biological clock by promoting sleepiness
  9. Thymus gland secretes
    thymosin, which promotes the proliferation and maturation of T cells.
  10. T cells are the type of whit blood cell (lymphocyte) that
    destroys microorganisms and foreign substances through direct cellular contact or by recruiting other white cells
  11. In the 1930's, Dr. Hans Selye, demonstrated that a variety of stressors would invoke a very similar response, regardless of the stressor type.  These common effects, controlled mainly by the hypothalamus, were termed the
    stress response or the general adaptation syndrome GAS
  12. The 3 stages of the stress response or GAS are
    1. fight-or-flight response

    2. resistance reaction

    3. exhaustion
  13. A stress response is the body's
    response to emergency or stressful situations, real or imagined
  14. A stressor is any
    stimulus that causes a stress response.

    -distress is a harmful response to a stressor

    -Eustress is a productive use of a stressor. Some levels of stress help individuals perform well and be productive
  15. It is the goal of the stress response to
    maintain homeostasis
  16. GAS:

    Fight or flight response
    -Stimulation of the adrenal medulla by the sympathetic nervous system. This response is initiated by neurons in the hypothalamus.

    *Provides large amounts of glucose and oxygen

    *Mental alertness

    *Increased blood flow to essential organs
  17. GAS:

    Resistance Reaction
    -With the source of this response being hormonal rather than neural, it allows the body to continue fighting a stressor long after the flight-or-flight response dissipates.

    • -Activation of the adrenal cortex, liver, and thyroid causes:
    • *increased blood pressure, glycogen catabolism, protein catabolism, lipolysis, and Na and water retention.

    *decreased inflammation, wound healing, and immune response
  18. GAS:

    Exhaustion Reaction
    -The exhaustion phase is when the body's resources become depleted and the resistance reaction cannot be maintained.

    - Prolonged exposure to the resistance response causes immune suppression, muscle wasting, ulceration of the tract, failure of pancreatic cells, and depletion of K

    -Common relationship with chronic diseases

    -Death is a potential severe consequence
  19. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System:

    Cause    -----   Effect

    Cause:Decrease in hGH
    • Effect:
    • Muscle atrophy

    Decreased cell replacement
  20. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System:

    Cause    -----   Effect

    Cause: Decreased thyroid hormone
    • Effect:
    • Cold intolerant

    Slower metabolism
  21. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System:

    Cause    -----   Effect

    Cause: Increased PTH

  22. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System:

    Cause    -----   Effect

    Cause:  Decreased cortisol and aldosterone
    Glucose and electrolyte changes
  23. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System:

    Cause    -----   Effect

    Cause: Decreased thymosin due to atrophied thymus

    Diminished T lymphocyte production
  24. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System:

    Cause    -----   Effect

    Cause: Decreased insulin levels

    Faster increase, slower decrease of blood glucose levels
Card Set
Biomedical Core
Objective 34-39