Midterm I Review

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  1. Anthropology
  2. Define Anthropology.
    The study of humanity from a holistic perspective.
  3. Anthropology is holisitic in ______ and _____.
    scope; approach
  4. Scope is what an anthropologist _____ _______, which can be ______ and _________.
    looks at; traditional; non-traditional
  5. True/False: Any approach can be used for this study. If false, why?
  6. What are the two main branches of anthropology?
    • Physical Anthropology
    • Cultural Anthropology
  7. Define physical anthropology?
    Study of everything about the human body.
  8. True/False: Physical anthropology is exclusive to humans. If false, why?
    False. It can also include animals similar to humans.
  9. Define cultural anthropology.
    The study of everything about human behavior.
  10. What is a synonym for sociocultural anthropology?
  11. What do sociocultural anthropology and ethnology mean?
    The study of present day culture.
  12. Define ethnography.
    The study of a specific culture.
  13. Define archaeology.
    The study of past cultures through their material remains.
  14. Linguistic anthropology is the study of ______ from an anthropological perspective.
  15. Applied anthropology is the use of anthropological knowledge for a _______ purpose.
  16. Applied anthropology can be used to _____ cultures.
  17. Religion is people's relationship with the ________.
  18. The supernatural is that which cannot be known by normal _____ means, but which exists.
  19. Culture
  20. Culture is a set of traits that are ...(5 things)
    • shared
    • learned
    • passed on
    • symbolic
    • systematic
  21. Culture gives us ______ to _____ before you experience them.
    solutions; problems
  22. ______ is a solution to all kinds of problems.
  23. Define norms.
    Normal behavior in a society.
  24. What are the three types of norms?
    • Ideal behavior
    • Expected behavior
    • Acceptable behavior
  25. What is ideal behavior?
    The most important norm which motivates our behavior.
  26. True/False: Acceptable behavior is always acceptable. If false, why?
    False. It is acceptable in certain circumstances.
  27. How can one tell how important a norm is?
    By how people react when that norm is broken.
  28. Many of our norms are ________.
  29. What is ethnocentrism?
    The belief that one's own culture is better than other cultures.
  30. The idea of cultural relativism is that one cannot judge another culture except by...?
    it's own standards.
  31. What two types of anthropologists reject this cultural relativism?
    • Missionaries, who believe their own culture is superior to all others.
    • Those who believe that some practices are too heinous to accept.
  32. Religion
  33. Types of Religion
  34. What three types of religions do most societies have elements of?
    • Animatism
    • Animism
    • Theism
  35. Animatism is the belief in an _______ force.
  36. True/False: Only living things hold this force. If false, why?
    False. Everything holds this force.
  37. Where is this type of religion found?
    In some chiefdoms.
  38. The force in animatism is known as ______.
  39. Mana can ______, and it is important to keep mana _______.
    fluctuate; high
  40. With a total loss of mana comes _______.
  41. True/False: If human beings gain enough mana, they can become part of the chiefly family. If false, why?
    False. Mana cannot exceed certain levels depending on who/what you are.
  42. What would the english word for "mana" be?
  43. Define tabu.
    A prohibition with an immediate, impersonal supernatural sanction.
  44. What are people constantly thinking about when it comes to tabu?
    How to not break a tabu and/or mitigating having broken one.
  45. Animism is the belief in ______.
  46. Individuals have ______, and there are ______ spirits.
    spirits; individual
  47. What is one of the main traits of a society in which animism is the main religion?
    Everything has a spirit.
  48. Define egalitarian society.
    A society in which everyone has the same basic access to resource, power, & prestige.
  49. Theism is the belief in ______.
  50. Define god.
    A spirit that creates or controls some aspect of the world.
  51. True/False: All monotheisms emerged from polytheisms. If false, why?
  52. In what societies are most theisms found?
    Stratified societies.
  53. How one views the world is known as _______.
  54. What would a second definition of worldview be?
    One's expectations of how the world works, emphasizing perception and experience.
  55. One's expectations of the way the world works, emphasizing guiding principles, is known as _______.
  56. One's expectations of how the world works, emphasizing the universe and everything in it, is known as _______.
  57. True/False: Those three words can be used as synonyms for religion and each other. If false, why?
  58. Science is knowledge acquired by the _____ _______.
    scientific method
  59. True/False: Although science is not as important as most types of knowledge, it is necessary. If false, why?
    False. Science is not necessary.
  60. True/False: Not everything is knowable by science. If false, why?
  61. The scientific method is a way of ______-______ knowledge through addressing ______, forming _____, _______ them against the real world, and drawing _______.
    self-correcting; problems; hypotheses; testing; conclusions
  62. The use of knowledge is _______.
  63. True/False: In the long run, science predicts best. If false, why?
  64. Two Main Approaches to Anthropology
  65. The materialist approach is the _______ approach.
  66. The interpretivist approach is the ______ approach.
  67. True/False: Materialists consider anthropology a social science, while interpretivists consider anthropology a humanity. If false, why?
  68. _______ ask the question "What is it like to be you?"
  69. Theories of Religion
  70. Cognitive Theories
  71. What do cognitive theories say about people in different cultures?
    That they think differently.
  72. ____, the creator of the evolutionary theory, said that people in more complex societies think...?
    Tylor; more complexly
  73. Along with the idea of the evolutionary theory, Tylor gave us the idea of ______.
  74. According to Tylor, religion comes from the explanation for _____, and the decay of the _____ after______.
    dreams; body; death
  75. According to Frazer, creator of the ________ theory, religion derives from people's explanation for their control over the world.
  76. How does Frazer define magic?
    The mechanical control of the supernatural.
  77. How does Frazer define religion?
    As beings appealing to gods for control of the supernatural.
  78. According to Frazer, what gives control back to the people (i.e. no longer needing to rely on gods for power)?
  79. Psychological Theories
  80. Psychological theories say that the explanation for religion can be found in what it does for __________ _________.
    the individual
  81. Psychoanalytical theory, created by ______, says that religion is an expression of people's relationship with their _______.
    Freud; parents.
  82. Where does all of this begin?
    With sexuality as a child, which is not fixed.
  83. According to Malinowski, creator of _______, religion exists to reduce _______.
    functionalism; anxiety
  84. According to __________ in his theory of _______, religion helps us to resolve binary oppositions.
    Levi-Strauss; structuralism
  85. Define binary oppositions.
    Pairs of opposites that have meaning in relation to each other.
  86. _____ is set up in relation to binary-opposition.
  87. When it comes to binary oppositions, when do people access religion?
    When they cross over (e.g. life and death)
  88. Social Theories
  89. Social theories say that the explanation for religion can be found for what it does in _______.
  90. According to ______'s ecological theory, religion helps cultures to survive in their ________.
    Harris; environments
  91. Describe one example Harris uses.
    Sacred cows in India: when droughts hit, those who ate their cows to survive would often perish later when they had no means of plowing their fields.
  92. According to __________ social order theory, religion exists to keep order in society.
  93. According to Durkheim's ______ theory, religion is the ____ of society itself and that increases social ______.
    solidarity; worship; solidarity
  94. Define sacred.
    That which is set apart or forbidden.
  95. Define sacred.
    That which is not sacred.
  96. Cosmology
  97. Define myth.
    A traditional story that is believed to be true that explains the origins of things and occurs in mythic time.
  98. What are the four requirements for something to be considered a myth?
    • 1) It cannot be invented (traditional story)
    • 2) People must believe it to be true.
    • 3) It must explain the origin of something.
    • 4) It occurs a long time ago, before the normal order of things was established.
  99. True/False: A tale is a traditional story that is believed to be true that occurs in historical time and is difficult to verify. If false, why?
    False. This describes a legend.
  100. Define tale.
    A traditional story that is not believed to be true, does not occur in historical time and is used primarily for education and entertainment.
  101. What do tales usually highlight?
    Incorrect behavior.
  102. Myths
  103. Functions of Myth (motifs)
  104. What are the four functions of myth?
    • Explanation
    • Validation - justification for what you're doing
    • Guidance
    • Ritual Purposes
  105. Creation Myths
  106. Creation myths, or _________, describes the origin of things.
  107. Most creation myths have motifs, or _______ ______, found in them.
    distinctive elements
  108. Describe the supreme being myth.
    Something creates the people, world, or universe.
  109. Describe the world parents myth.
    Man and woman create the world.
  110. Describe the cosmic egg myth.
    Creation came from an egg.
  111. The ______ ______ myth describes a mythical being who dives into water to get earth.
    mythic diver
  112. What does this myth often explain?
    Why there is land.
  113. Describe the emergence myth.
    People emerge from something.
  114. death myths
  115. Describe the perverted message myth.
    God sent a message of immortality to the people, but the messenger lied and said that people would die. People die because they believed the messenger.
  116. Describe the two messengers myth.
    God sends a message of immortality to people, but the messenger is slow; people ask for a second messenger who is fast; the fast message is death. People die because they believe the message.
  117. Describe the cast skin myth.
    People could live forever if they could take off their skin like a snake.
  118. The breach of ________ describes people doing something prohibited, which means that they therefore must die.
  119. This prohibited thing is usually what?
    A sin.
  120. Mythical Beings
  121. A mythical character who introduces something important into a society is known as what?
    A culture hero.
  122. A trickster is a mythical character who has insatiable _________.
  123. True/False: An addition to this definition would be that he plays tricks on people to satisfy this appetite. If false, why?
  124. Most tricksters are ______ _____, & vice versa.
    culture heros
  125. ______ is the essence of the function of a tale.
  126. A mythical character composed of parts of more than one creature is known as a ______.
  127. Describe the minotaur.
    A creature with the body of a person and the head of a bull.
  128. Who is Minos?
  129. The craftsman who made the Labyrinth is called _________.
  130. Who were put into the Labyrinth?
    Daedalus & the Minotaur.
  131. myths of gender antagonism
  132. Describe the myth of vagina dentata.
    Vaginas originally had teeth, and the teeth had to be broken out for sexual intercourse to occur.
  133. Describe the misused power myth.
    Originally women had power and misused it in some way and must therefore never have power again.
  134. Describe the myth of original sin.
    Women did something prohibited and therefore must always be subservient.
  135. The Supernatural
  136. ambiguity of categories
  137. The ritual among pygmies in which they demonstrate their need to work together during times of crisis is known as...?
  138. Describe this ritual. (3 parts)
    • Men pretend to be the spirit of the forest.
    • Women criticize the men for lying & tie them up.
    • They finish the ritual together.
  139. What is Dreamtime?
    The time of the origin of the world for the Aborigines.
  140. In Dreamtime, ____ make the myth.
  141. The vital essence of a person that departs at death is known as _____  _____.
    soul matter
  142. life after death
  143. What are the spirits of dead relatives called?
    Ancestor spirits
  144. True/False: Most cultures believe in this. If false, why?
  145. What four domains can be the the land of the dead?
    • Heaven
    • Hell
    • Middle-ground (purgatory?)
    • Earth
  146. How does one often go to the land of the dead?
    As an ancestor.
  147. Returning to life in a different body is known as _______.
  148. Define nirvana.
    The loss of one's individual self in a unity with all things.
  149. animation
  150. functions of taboo
  151. What are the four functions of taboo?
    • Group solidarity
    • Social control
    • Reduce anxiety
    • Maintain cognitive boundaries
  152. Match the names of this theorists to the three functions which drew from them.
    • Malinowski - Reduce anxiety
    • Durkheim - Group solidarity
    • Radcliffe-Brown - Social control
  153. Why is maintaining cognitive boundaries necessary?
    Categories help us arrange the world.
  154. animism
  155. Define spirit.
    Supernatural person.
  156. What is an anthropomorphic spirit?
    A spirit in the form of a person.
  157. Spirits in the form of animals are _______ spirits.
  158. What are naturalistic spirits?
    Spirits in the form of a plant or natural feature.
  159. Spirits that think like humans are _______ spirits.
  160. True/False: Most spirits are anthropopsychic. If false, why?
    False. They are all anthropopsychic.
  161. A spirit associated with a body is known as a _______.
  162. Religious Specialists
  163. totemism
  164. Define totemism.
    A spiritual relationship with a totem.
  165. What is a totem?
    An animal, plant, or natural feature especially associated with a group of people, usually as an ancestor.
  166. theism
  167. What is polytheism?
    The belief in many gods.
  168. All of the gods in a religion are the religion's ________.
  169. What is monotheism?
    The belief in one god.
  170. The most powerful god in a pantheon is the ____ god.
  171. Define otiose god.
    A god who created the world and no longer has anything to do with it.
  172. What does "otiose" mean?
    At rest.
  173. True/False: Most animistic societies have otiose gods. If false, why?
  174. The god in charge of the animals is known as what?
    Master of the animals.
  175. shamanism
  176. What are shamans?
    Religious specialists found in most cultures.
  177. What do shamans do?
    They do spiritual work on behalf of the community through altered states of consciousness.
  178. Shamanism goes together with _________.
  179. The main work of shamanism includes: (3 things)
    • Curing
    • Recovery
    • Soul loss
  180. What do shamans cure?
  181. What do shamans recover?
    Lost souls
  182. Define soul loss.
    The belief that one's soul has left one's body.
  183. What disorder shares symptoms with those of soul loss?
  184. Define consciousness.
    Awareness of one's self and one's surroundings.
  185. True/False: Consciousness constantly changes. If false, why?
  186. What do you call a state of awareness that is not normal?
    Altered states of consciousness
  187. True/False: Some can perceive the supernatural in altered states of consciousness. If false, why?
  188. What two altered states do shamans mainly employ?
    Spirit possession and soul flight.
  189. What occurs during spirit possession?
    A spirit controls one's body.
  190. Where can spirit possession occur?
    In various settings.
  191. True/False: Spirit possession is total. If false, why?
    False. It can be partial.
  192. Describe a shaman being possessed by a spirit.
    Shamans will deliberately close their eyes & the spirit that the shaman has developed a special relationship with will take over.
  193. Define soul flight.
    A person's spirit leaves their body with consciousness.
  194. What is soul flight mostly about?
    Retrieving souls.
  195. Why do shamans engage in soul flight?
    They go on behalf of other people.
  196. Define witchdoctor.
    A person who cures one from the effects of witchcraft.
  197. A religious specialist that relies on liturgy is known as a _______.
  198. What types of religions are priests associated with?
  199. Define liturgy.
    Memorized ritual.
  200. True/False: Only if the effects of liturgy are done correctly will the desired effects occur. If false, why?
Card Set
Midterm I Review
Anthropology through Shamanism
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