Microbiology 265 1st set

  1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
    Microscope builder (animalcules)
  2. Lucretius
    proposed disease caused by invisible living creatures
  3. Aristotle 
    spontaneous generation 
  4. francesco redi
    cheescloth over meet=no maggots
  5. John Needham
    boiled broth sealed in jars still becomes turbid
  6. Lazzaro Spallanzani
    • sealed flasks that where boiled did NOT become turbid
    • air required for growth?
  7. Louis Pasteur
    • First to connect cause and effect of microbs and disease
    • discovered fermentation
    • disproved spontaneous generation
  8. Robert Koch
    • methods led to pure bacterial cultures
    • Koch's postulates still used today
  9. Koch's postulates
    • 1)Show that the isolate is only present in diseased animals
    • 2)Isolate the organism
    • 3)Show that the isolated organism causes disease in healthy animals
    • 4)Re-isolate the organism and show that it is the same as the original
    • Limitations:
    • must grow in pure culture
    • slow organisms won't work
    • complex nutrients or social needs won't be met
  10. Fannie Hesse and Richard Petri
    created Agar and Petri plate
  11. Edward Jenner
    Smallpox vaccine
  12. Ferdinand Cohn
    founder of bacteriology (described spores)
  13. Sergei Winogradsky
    concept of chemolithotrophy and autotrophy
  14. Martinus Bejerinck
    • enrichment culturing meathod
    • idea behind virus
  15. Alexander fleming
  16. Howard Foley
    Industrial production of penicillin
  17. Selman Waksman andd Albert Schatz
    discovered streptomycin in soil bacteria
  18. Thomas Brock
    Discovered bacteria in hot springs (Thermus aquaticus) which gave us Taq polymerase
  19. Carl Woese and George Fox
    Discovered Archaea
  20. Craig Venter and Hamilton Smith
    first complete sequence of a bacterial genome
  21. uses of bacteria in every day life
    • Food (fermentaton, additives, preservatives)
    • Diseases (treatment and identifying of new diseases)
    • Energy/enviro
    • biotechnology (genetically modified)
    • Agriculture (nutrient cycling, husbandry)
  22. Carl Linnaeus
    Naming of organism into genus and species
  23. Scientific naming
    • Genus and Species
    • Latin
    • Italicized or underlined
    • genus is capitalized, species is lowercase
    • after first use in paper the genus is simplified into its first letter only
  24. Escherichia coli
    • Gram negative
    • facultative anaerobe
    • motile
    • lives in GI tracts
    • famous for being model organism & food poisoning
  25. Ribosomal RNA
    • Quantitative measure of relatedness/evolution of life forms
    • consists of small subunit: 16S in Prok, 18S in Euk
    • a structural molecule (not translated to protein)
    • contains conserved and variable regions which allows for discrimination of relatedness
  26. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
    • 1) Prokaryotes GENERALLY have no defined organelles (no nuclear membrane)
    • 2) Prokaryotes are GENERALLY are smaller
  27. caulobacter
    fresh water appendaged/budding bacteria

    model for complex prokayotic cell cycle
  28. filamentous
    • chloroflexus (photosynthetic, no o2 produced)
    • bacteria that form thin strands that group together to form strands
  29. Morphogenesis
    change in shape
  30. monomorphic
    one shape for lifetime, observed in most pure cultures
  31. pleomorphic
    multiple shapes which can change during growth or due to environment (sporulation)
  32. sporulation
    creation of spores due to nutrient limitations
  33. Arthrobacter sp.
    Pleomorphic bacteria that undergoes morphogensis from rod to coccus
  34. Macromolecules in Prok
    • Proteins: throughout
    • Nucleic acids: DNA in nucleoid; RNA in cytoplasm & ribosomes
    • Polysaccharides: cell wall and granules
    • Lipids: cytoplasm, cell wall, granules
  35. Pourpose of Bacterial membrane
    • 1) permeability barrier: prevents leakage and is gateway for transport
    • 2) Protein Anchor: proteins involved in transport, bioenergetics and chemotaxis are located here
    • 3) Energy conservation: PMF site
  36. Phospholipid Bilayer
    • Hydrophillic glycerol & phosphate backbone
    • Hydrophobic fatty acid tails
    • Archea actually have a Mono layer
  37. Ester vs Ether bonds
    • Ester linked lipids= bacteria and euk
    • Ether linked lipids= Archaea (also have Isoprene chain instead of fatty acid chain)
  38. Simple transport
    • Driven by the energy in the proton motive force or by gradients. 
    • 3 mechanisms: uniporter, antiporter, and symporter
  39. Group translocation
    • The Phosphotransferase system (PTS)
    • chemical modification of substances combines substances
    • driven by high energy PEP
  40. ABC system
    • Periplasmic binding proteins assist in transport 
    • driven by ATP
    • A=attaching to Periplasmic protein
    • B= travel through mebrane protein
    • C= use of ATP for hydrolysis protein
  41. Uniporter
    Single molecule transport along gradients but through specific channels
  42. Antiporter
    • two molecules transported through channel but in opposite directions.
    • driven by PMF
  43. Symporter
    • Two molecules being transported through a channel in the same direction
    • driven by PMF
  44. Gram staining
    • Christian Gram
    • 1) cells stained with insoluble crystal violet
    • 2) cells decolorized with alcohol (Gram + dehydrate and prevent dye from escaping resulting in purple colour)
    • 3) counter stain of safranin (stains gram - bacteria purple)
  45. Gram + vs Gram -
    • Gram positive bacteria are susceptible to penicillin like anitibiotics
    • gram positive bacteria "can" form spores to make them more resistant
    • gram positive require additional vitamins or amino acids
  46. Thermoplasma volcanii
    • facultative anaerobe
    • no cell wall (changes shape)
    • HOT temperatures (55-60)
    • loves acidity (0.5-4 pH)
    • monotrichous flagella
  47. Gram positive cell wall
    • normal cytoplasmic membrane: contains proteins
    • peptidoglycan layer: contains lipoteichoic acid (whole length), teichoic acid (partial length), proteins
  48. Gram negative cell wall
    • normal cytoplasmic membrane: contains proteins
    • periplasm: contains thin peptidoglycan connected to outer membrane by lipoproteins
    • Outer membrane: second lipid bylayer containing porins, proteins, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
  49. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
    • located in Gram negative cell wall
    • Lipid A: binds to second bylayer
    • Ketodeoxyoctonate (KDO): binding between Lipid and Polysacch
    • Core: polysaccharides
    • O specific: unique polysaccharide for each species
  50. Porin
    Channel for entrance and exit of hydrophillic low molec weight substances
  51. periplasmic space
    • almost non-existent in gram positive
    • contains enzymes that help nutrient metabolism/acquisition 
  52. Chemolithotrophs
    extensive arrays of electron transport proteins extending from periplamic space to outer membrane, used for inorganic ions
  53. exoenzymes
    • secreted by cell for nutrient transport
    • in the periplasmic space
    • ex. amylases aiding in mobilizing sugars
  54. Capsule and slime layers
    • made of polysaccharide matrix
    • allows for attachment, resistence, and even virulence
  55. cellular inclusions
    • 1) Carbon storage: poly B Hydroxybutyrate 
    • 2) Sulfur storage: Sulfur granules in chromatium buderi
    • 3) Magnetosomes: magnets that allow orientation of bacteria, often associated with O2 concentration
    • 4) Gas Vessicles: allows flotation 
  56. Psychromonas ingrahmii
    • Psychrophile (lives in sea ice, sub zero seawater)
    • facultatively aerobic heterotroph
    • non-motile
    • lowest recorded growth temp (-12)
  57. Endospores
    • Gram positive bacteria in nutrient deprivation  creates spores that are resistant to environmental stress.
    • Few exceptions of gram neg bacteria forming spores
    • controlled by complex cascade of sigma factor gene expression events
    • consists of DNA- Cortex- Core wall- Spore coat- Exosprium
  58. Sporulation stages
    • stage 1) Assymmetric cell division: commitment to sporulation
    • stage 2) Prespore is formed at one end of cell and engulfment into the main cell occurs
    • stage 3) engulfment has occured and cortex formation begins
    • stage 4) spore contains cortex, cell wall, and membrane
    • stage 5) extra coating, Ca2+ uptake, SASPs (small acid soluble spore proteins), diplocolinic acid
    • Stage 6-7) maturation and cell lysis releasing mature spore
  59. Dipicolinic acid
    Unique to spores which crosslinks with Ca in spore coat and makes impenetrable barrier
  60. spore -> vegetative cell
    • 1) activation: heating to sub-lethal temp
    • 2) place in nutrients
    • 3) germination: rapid RNA synthesis, protein and DNA. Breaks out of spore coat
  61. types of flagella
    • monotrichous: attached at one end
    • amphitrichous: attached at both ends
    • lophotrichous: tuft at one end
    • peritrichous: all over cell
  62. flagellum (gram negative)
    3 parts: Fillament (flagellin), Hook (hook protein), and Basal Body (3 rings)

    3 Rings: L ring (in LPS) - P Ring (in peptidoglycan) - MS ring (in cytoplasm with Mot protein and Fli proteins)

    powered by PMF moving through Mot protein

    Gram Positive only has 2 rings (no LPS)
  63. Gliding motility
    • Flavobacterium johnsioniae
    • powered by PMF
    • outer membrane contains proteins that connect to peptidoclycan layer and "walk" in one dircetion which pushes the cell in the opposite direction
  64. Axial filaments
    • aka Endoflagella
    • usually in spirochaetes
    • anchored at end of cell and rotates the whole cell
  65. chemotaxis
    directed random movement towards a gradient through increase or decrease of length of runs
  66. Phototaxis
    attraction to certain wavelength, swarming towards light source
  67. Macronutrients
    • CHONPS= building blocks of cell
    • K, Na = membrane transport
    • Ca, Mg = enzymatic function
    • Fe = Cytrochromes and iron sulfer proteins
  68. Redfield ratio
    • 106C : 16N : 1P 
    • ratio of nutrients in seawater & in marine bacteria!
    • caused because bacteria shape their environment around them
  69. Micronutrients
    Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni, Cu
  70. Siderophore
    bind iron for transport into cell. transports Fe (III) which is not very soluble, but common.
  71. Growth factors
    • something a cell needs but can't create
    • vitamins, AA, Purines/Pyrimidines
  72. Phototroph
    able to grow on minimal media. can produce required growth factors
  73. auxotrophs
    unable to synthesize essential nutrient(s) required in MM
  74. Defined media
    • everything in media is known. Only phototrophs will grow.
    • same as minimal media
  75. complex media
    Unknown contents of media but rich enough for auxotrophs
  76. selective media
    • encourages growth of certain organisms and discourages others
    • ALL media is selective
  77. Differential media
    distinguishes identity of certain microbes based on growth and appearance
  78. Divisome
    • responsible for cell division
    • made of divisome complex which is powered by atp but the FtsZ ring which actually is responsible for the  division is created using GTP
  79. Peptidoglycan synthesis
    • Bactoprenol: brings in Nam and Nag/precursors
    • Autolysin: breaks existing glycolytic bonds for new insertion
    • Penicillin proteins: transpeptidation (new poly peptides)
  80. Growth pattern
    • Lag phase
    • exponential
    • stationary
    • death
  81. Lag phase
    • gearing up for cell division
    • caused by age of culture, initial numbers, environmental changes, or synthesis of new enzymes needed.
  82. exponential phase
    • N = No2^n
    • N=cell density at time, t
    • No=initial cell density
    • n=t/g
    • g=generation/doubling time

    n= 3.3 (log N-log No)
  83. Stationary Phase
    • cells alive but not growing or dying
    • smaller cells in survival mode, sporulation
    • caused by substrate limitation, O2 decrease, toxins. NOT due to crowding
  84. cryptic growth
    decrease growth rate so death is almost= to growth
  85. Death phase
    • decline in numbers, linear or exponential but never inverse of exponential growth
    • transferring colonies to new plate shows lower than expected numbers 
  86. types of measurements of microbial growth
    • direct count: Cells are counted under microscope (least reliable, dead counted)
    • viable plate counts: counted on incubated plates (only works if you know the bacteria will grow on the media)
    • turbidimetric: turbidity of culture tube is measured by spectrophotometer (doesn't work at high cell numbers)
    • Indirect meathods: O2 consumption, CO2 production, ATPase, ect
  87. Great plate count anomaly
    • direct plate counts are 1000x larger than viable plate counts:
    • caused by syntropy
    • bacteria might be dead
    • bacteria might be nonculturable
    • might not have proper "food" in the plate (most likely)
  88. Chemostat
    • continuous exponential growth by having a dilution rate (flow) and growth rate matched up along with excess bacteria being removed
    • used for industrial production, waste treatment, or any harvesting of cells
  89. barophiles
    high pressure organisms
  90. optimal growth temps
    • Psychrophile - 4
    • mesophile - 39
    • thermophile - 60 (<45)
    • hyperthermophile - 88 (<80)
    • hyperthermophile - 106
  91. pH
    • neutrophiles - 6-8
    • acidophiles - below 5.5
    • alkaliphiles - above 8.5

    pH of all organisms internally is near neutral
  92. Haloquadratum Walsbyi
    • strict aerobe
    • nonmotile
    • 20% NaCl, salterns
    • SQUARE
  93. Osmophiles
    • halophiles - require NaCl for growth (1-6% or 6-15%)
    • extreme halophiles - require 15-30% NaCl
    • Halo Tolerant - tolerate reduction in aw but not beneficial
    • Osmophiles - grow in high sugar environments (yeast and fungi)
    • xerophiles - grow in very dry environments
  94. compatible solutes
    made in cytoplasm to change aw so that it decreases and water won't leave the cell. 
  95. leibigs law of the minimum
    biomass of organism is determined by the limiting nutrient
  96. shelfords law of tolerance
    at certain environmental limits a organism will not grow no matter what
  97. SOD
    • Super Oxide Dismutase: all O2 using organisms have this (even microaerophile) 
    • removes toxic oxygen species
  98. catylase
    present in most O2 using organism to help oxidise H2O2
Card Set
Microbiology 265 1st set
Microbiology 265, University of Alberta, Boucher Yan