PSY 241 Lecture 1

  1. Levels of analysis to study nervous system
    • Cellular level
    • Synaptic level
    • Molecular level
    • Social Level
    • Organ level
    • Neural systems level
    • Brain region level
    • Circuit level
  2. Central Nervous System
    • Brain and Spinal Cord
    • Encased within the skull and spinal colum
  3. Peripheral Nervous System
    Made of nerve tissue located outside of brain and spinal cord
  4. Blood vessels
    Provide nutrients and proteins
  5. Neurons (nerve cell)
    • Basic unit of nervous system
    • Perform info processing and communication functions of nervous system
    • 100,000,000,000 neurons in the brain
  6. Glial Cells
    • Provide structural, nutritional, and other types of support to the brain
    • "Glue" in Greek
    • 1/10 size of neurons
    • Not capable of electrochemical signal
    • Provide support and nutrients to neurons
  7. Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1906)
    • Neurons and other cells of brain are structurally, metabolically, and functionally independent
    • Information is transmitted from neuron to neuron across tiny gaps (synapses)
  8. Visualizing Cells
    Golgi stain

    • Nissl stain
    • Certain cells pick up stain
    • Cells densely packed

    • Immunocytochemistry
    • Antibodies with fluorescent tag allows you to see particular parts of cells

    • Expression of c-fos in activated cells
    • Stains tissue dark
    • Shows cells recently active
    • Would show where cocaine would take affect
  9. What kind of information do neurons process?
    Pain perception and reflexes
  10. Dendrites
    • Input zone
    • Receives info from other neurons
    • transmits toward cell body (soma)
  11. Soma
    • Integration zone
    • Processes info
    • Initiates electrical signal (action potential)
  12. Axon or nerve fiber
    • Conduction zone
    • transmits info (action potential) away from cell body towards terminal button
  13. Axon terminal or synaptic bouton
    • Output zone
    • end of axon
    • forms synapse on another cell
  14. Cytoplasm
    semi-water fluid that fill inside of cell and contain organelles
  15. Cell membrane
    • Separates cytoplasm from outside of cell
    • Controls flow of substances into and out of neuron
  16. Nucleus
    • Membrane enclosed structure
    • Contains genetic material (DNA)
    • Involved in protein synthesis
  17. Ion Channels
    channels for passage of substances from one side of the membrane to the other
  18. Receptor proteins
    recognize and bind to neurotransmitters or other chemicals
  19. Pump proteins
    exchange one type of substance for another
  20. Proteins
    • Made up of string of amino acids folded up to form specific shapes
    • Sequence obtained from genetic material
  21. Nucleus contains __________ of Chromosomes.
    23 pairs
  22. Gene
    • segment of DNA encodes for specific proteins
    • 23,000 genes
    • 1.5% of genome
    • 98.5% "Junk"
  23. Protein synthesis
    • Make proteins: DNA has to be TRANSCRIBED into RNA
    • RNA is then TRANSLATED into protein by ribosomes
  24.                  pairs with Thymine
                     pairs with Cytosine
    • Adenine pairs with Thymine
    • Guanine pairs with Cytosine
  25. Codon
    3 RNA nucleotides
  26. Peptide
    50 amino acids of less
  27. 50+ amino acids
  28. Golgi apparatus
    Package proteins for transport
  29. Mitochondira
    • Stored energt
    • Takes in pyruvic acid (from sugar, proteins, and fats) and oxygen
    • Produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  30. Lysosomes
    Degrade products that are not needed by the cell (waste material)
  31. Axons branch out and are called __________.
    axon collaterals
  32. Information transfer is chemical (_____________) which is packaged in ______________.
    Information transfer is chemical (neurotransmitter) which is packaged in synaptic vesicles.
  33. Information Processing
    • 1. Electrical
    • 2. Chemical
    • 3. Electrical
  34. Cytoskeleton
    • "Bones" found throughout the cytoplasm
    • Microtubules
    • Microfilaments
    • Neurofilaments
    • Maintain structure/shape
    • Allow for movement of substances across neuron (axoplasmic transport)
  35. Microtubules
    hollow pipe runs longitudinally down neurites (axon and dendrites)
  36. Microfilaments and Neurofilaments
    Protein strands found throughout neurons
  37. __________________-->new proteins
    • Anterograde transport-->new proteins
    • away from soma
  38. Waste<--________________
    • Waste<--Retrograde transport
    • return to soma
  39. Sensory neurons
    Carry sensory info to CNS
  40. Interneurons
    Connect sensory and motor neurons or communicate with other neurons
  41. Motor neurons
    Carry into from CNS to muscles to control their functioning
  42. Astrocytes
    • Most numerous of glial cells
    • Star-shaped
    • Provide physical support to neurons, nourishment, and other functions:
    • Increase blood flow
    • formation of synapses
    • neural plasticity
  43. Microglia cells
    • Smallest of glial cells
    • Support neurons by removing debris
  44. Oligodendrocytes
    • Produce myelin
    • Myelin: fatty insulation that surrounds axons of neurons IN the CNS
  45. Schwann Cells
    • Produce myelin
    • Myelin: fatty insulation that surrounds axons of neurons OUTSIDE the CNS (in the PNS)
  46. Nodes of Ranvier
    Gaps in myelin sheath
  47. Multiple sclerosis
    Demyelinating disease
Card Set
PSY 241 Lecture 1
PSY 241 Psychobiology