Organization Communications Exam 1

  1. Container Metaphor
    • outdated because it assumes that orgs only comm w/i itself and not w/ other orgs or the outside world
    • containers DO have walls that are permeable
  2. Rapid Change
    what is true now might not be in the near future, people must be flexible and quick to adapt
  3. Urgent Organization
    company whose main challenge is to shorten time in which they develop new products and respond to customer demands
  4. Organizational Environment
    sum of things outside an org's boundaries that exert influence on the org
  5. Global Economy
    growing proximity and intermingling of orgs and their money to due gloalization
  6. Communication as Information Transfer
    • Metaphor: pipeline
    • Effectiveness: receiver of comm understands what speaker intended 
    • Assumptions: language allows transfer of thoughts, we put thoughts to words which contain those thoughts, listeners can extract feelings from words
    • limitations: too simplistic, receive is passive, unrealistic sequential image, denies miscommunication
    • implications: can help understand basic comm; there is a potential for info overload
  7. Communication as Transactional Process
    • metaphor: process
    • effectiveness: senders and receivers share meaning
    • assumptions; senders and receivers both play roles, there is meaning in non-verbal comm
    • problems: miscomm can occur if meanings aren't shared or if there is a misreading of feedback
  8. Communication as a balance between creativity and constraint
    • metaphor: balance
    • effectiveness: balance b/w satisfied individuals and cohesive community
    • assumptions: duality of structure says individuals are molded by society but also create it, comm is the moment-to-moment working out of tensions between maintaining order and promoting change
  9. Metaphors for classical and human relations
    • Classical Management: orgs as an efficient machine
    • Human Relations: orgs as the sum of relationships
  10. Earliest work in org comm
    Precepts of Ptahhotep: an egyptian writing about human relations
  11. Role of Ind. Rev on work
    • first time work was outside home
    • fruits of labor were often unseen
    • gender roles
    • division of labor
    • ability to predict and control production
  12. Adam Smith
    Wealth of Nations praised dividing labor in factory production
  13. Karl Marx
    division of labor was essential to organizing corporations and societies along class lines
  14. Division of Labor
    separation of tasks into discrete units
  15. Hierarchy
    vertical arrangement of power and authority that distinguishes managers from employees
  16. Scientific Management def.
    • based on book Principles of Scientific Management (1913) by Frederick Taylor
    • management is a true science resting on clearly defined laws, rules, and principles
  17. Time and Motion Studies
    scientific management
    measured how long it took one competent worker to complete a task and used that time measurement to plan factory outcomes and measure worker efficiency
  18. Outcomes of Scientific Management
    • male employees are best bc they are more rational and not emotional
    • managers thing and workers work, hence white v blue collar
    • principles of SM are often used in the modern household
    • everything is straightforward, does not take into account motives for work, employee relationships, or flexibility
    • high turnover rate
  19. Classical Management 
    • Henry Fayol, five elements of classical management: organizing, commanding (goal setting), planning, coordinating, controlling (evaluating)
    • each employee should have only one boss and one plan
    • departmentalization: grouping similar activities together
    • centralization of decision making and respect for authority
    • respect for agreed upon rules and not just the position
    • wanted to avoid high turnover
    • subordinATE personal interests to those of the org
    • encouraged employee initiative
    • "seldom do we have to apply the same principle twice in identical situations"
  20. Bureaucracy
    six characteristics 
    • Six Characteristics:
    • fixied division of labor
    • hierarchy of offices
    • general rules that govern performance
    • rigid separation of person life from work
    • hiring based on technical qualifications and equal treatment
    • participants' view of employment as a career; tenure protection against unfair dismissal
  21. Bureaucracy key terms
    • Particularism: no job security, workers hired/fired based on demographics, long hours, good for owners but not employees
    • Universalism: equal treatment according to ability
  22. Bureaucracy downfalls
    • today associated with red tape and inflexibility: result of workers not system
    • cannot be realized because: cannot rid orgs of extra-org influences, does not deal well with non-routine tasks, people vary in terms of rationality
  23. Human relations approach
    Definition: emphasizes peoples desires and needs of interpersonal relations and to feel like they are a part of something worthy to give significance for living; comes out of depression and WWII
  24. Elton Mayo
    • there is a limit to individual rationality and an importance of interpersonal realations; society is characterized by groups and people are swayed by group norms; decisions are not 100% rational but influenced by emotions
    • human relations approach 
  25. Chester Barnard
    • believed the key element of persuasion in order to accept a common purpose; the role of management was communicative and persuasive; encouraged workers to be able to identify with organization; primary goal of management is interpersonal as opposed to economic
    • human relations approach
  26. Hawthorne Studies
    • Lighting: researchers adjusted the lighting in one room (brighter) and not in other room of workers, but productivity went up in both and continued to go up when lights went down. this was not due to lighting but due to attention from researchers and managers
    • Bank Wiring Room: employees were paid based on individual productivity but this decreased productivity out of fear of wage decrease
  27. Human Resources Approach
    • desire to incorporate valuing employee perceptions, worldview, and voice
    • concern with total org climate as well as with how an org can encourage employee participation and dialogue
  28. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • humans have layers of needs, and bottom layers must be satisfied before upper layers can be satisfied 
    • physiological, safety, love, self-esteem, self-actualization
  29. McGregor's Theory X
    • avg. person dislikes work and avoids it if possible
    • because of dislike, must be coerced/threatened to get them to put forth adequate effort
    • avg. person prefers being directed and desires avoiding responsibility
    • has little ambition and desires security above all 
  30. McGregor's Theory Y
    • expenditure of effort in work is as natural as play or rest
    • external control/punishment aren't the only means of bringing about goals
    • people will self-control if they are committed to service
    • commitment is a function of the rewards associated with achievement
    • avg person learns to accept and seek responbility
    • capacity to exercise creativity in the solution of problems is widely distributed in population
    • intellectual potential is only partially utilized 
    • people are good
  31. Politics of Middle Management
    • happy employees=productive ones
    • create imagined happiness as the opposite of dissatisfaction because happiness is indescribable
    • all leaders must be able to define happiness
    • happiness is conspired as a source of fear and reward
  32. Systems Perspective--Tenets
    • interdependence
    • goals
    • open systems
    • process and feedback (developments and revision)
    • openness, order, and contingency
  33. Systems Perspective--Core assumptions
    • difference b/w disconnected set of parts and a collection that work together
    • relations existing among people are a system
    • orgs do not exist isolated from the rest of the world
    • open systems: you work with your environment...its not us against them
    • goals are negotiated among interdependent factions and are heavily influenced by environment
    • metaphor: biological organism; system is greater than the sum of its parts
  34. Karl Weick's Sense-Making Model
    • 3 Parts
    • Enactment: members create environments through actions and patterns of attention
    • selection: members decide the best way to interpret environment from several choices
    • Retention: successful interpretations are saved for future use
    • Retrospective sense making: people act first and examine their actions after to explain their meaning
    • 7 properties of sense making: identity construction, retrospection, socialization, continuation, extracted cues, plausibility
    • loose v strong couple: describing the degree to which systems w/i orgs are connected
  35. Senge & Learning Organizations
    • systems thinking: for one to succeed all must
    • personal mastery: all members share a personal commitment to learning
    • flexible mental models: patterns of belief that shape interpretations and actions must be flexible to be efficient
    • shared vision: common goals and knowing where they fit into these
    • team learningi: comm in ways that lead the team toward good decisions
  36. Double-Loop Learning
    • Argyris
    • both positive and negative feedback are important for reexamining established assumptions and decision premises
  37. History of cultural approach
    • 70's: japan doing well and selling more cars despite having been destroyed in WWII; this is because they work in teams, put good of company first, and have collectivism. US tried to install this but failed to recognize we have our own culture and can't reinstall it.
    • 80's: culture metaphor takes over. 
    • in search of excellence: peters and waterman, profile companies with strong cultures
    • corporate cultures: deal and kennedy, profile types of cultures, high risk culture: you bet your company; work hard play hard cultures
  38. Definitions of Culture
    • meaningful order of people and things
    • pattern of shared basic assumptions that have been invented, discovered, and/or developed by a common people
    • artifacts: tangible and physical features of an org
  39. Clifford Geertz
    • thick description
    • culture is a web and man is an animal stuck in a web
    • culture is constructed and you can recognize where it comes from by its web
    • there isn't a need for shared values in cultures
  40. Communication Perspective on Org Culture
    • comm is the core process which culture is formed and transformed
    • everyday comm and more notable comm are important
    • words/actions/nonverbal comm
    • examine broad patterns and how they play out 
    • legitimacy of multiple motives for researching culture
  41. Subcultures: Martin and Meyerson
    • integration: culture is consistent and clear; no disagreement or room for ambiguity
    • differentiation: highlighting differences across subcultures and that manifestations are inconsistent with one another
    • fragmentation: ambiguity is inevitable and manifestations can always be interpreted in a myriad of ways
  42. Van Maanen Tales of the Field
    guy who wrote about disneyland
  43. Boje's Storytelling Organization
    • organizations are mainly storytelling systems
    • stories about orgs culture convey info about state of affair and become resources for everyday sense making
  44. roots of critical approach
    • marx: saw division of labor and alienation from their work; predicted workers would rebel and seize means of production
    • frankfurt school: why don't workers rebel? my life is all about the jobi'll have, life is materialistic and uncreative
  45. ideology
    • represents sectional interests to be universal
    • denies system contradictions
    • naturalizes the present through reification (making symbolic thought real)
    • functions as a form of control
  46. early conceptions of power (french and raven)
    • coercive: do it or else
    • reward: do it and i'll give you something
    • legitimate: do it bc i have authority
    • expertise: do it b/c i have expertise
    • referent: do it bc you trust me
  47. Hegemony
    when the world view articulated by the ruling elite is actively taken up and pursued by subordinate groups
  48. Narratives of resistance
    tell the other side of the story
  49. Deetz-Corporate colonization of the lifeworld
    spread of corporate ideologies and discourses to every aspect of our lives, including who we are as humans
Card Set
Organization Communications Exam 1
Test 1 February 14 2013