Human Development Exam 2

  1. neuron
    the basic nerve cell of the nervous system
  2. synapse
    the gap at the connection between neurons, through which neurons chemically communicate with one another
  3. synaptic pruning
    the elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation
  4. myelin
    a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses
  5. plasticity
    the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience
  6. rythms
    repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior
  7. state
    the degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation 
  8. dendrite
    a cluster of fibers that receive messages from other cells
  9. reflexes
    unlearned, organized, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli
  10. encoding
    the process by which info is initially recored in a form usable to memory
  11. norms
    represent the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age
  12. autostimulation
    brain stimulates itself 
  13. automatization
    the degree to which an activity requires attention 
  14. storage
    placement of material into memory
  15. retrieval
    process by which material in memory storage is located, brought to awareness, and used
  16. infantile amnesia
    the lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 years of age
  17. explicit memory
    memory that is conscious and can be recalled intentionally
  18. implicit memory
    memories of which we are not consciously aware but that affect performance and behavior 
  19. developmental quotient
    an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains: motor skills, language use, adaptive behavior, and personal-social 
  20. cross-modal transference
    the ability to identify a stimulus that previously has been experienced through only one sense by using another sense 
  21. Kwashiorkor
    a disease in which a child's stomach, limbs, and face swell with water
  22. Marasmus
    a disease in which infants stop growing
  23. Undernutrition
    some deficiency in diet
  24. Malnutrition
    the condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients
  25. Non-organic failure to thrive
    a disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting
  26. Sound localization
    pinpoint the direction from which a sound is emanating
  27. Semantics
    the rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences.
  28. babbling
    making speech-like but meaningless sounds
  29. Holophrases
    one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used
  30. Telegraphic speech
    speech in which word not critical to the message are left out
  31. Language acquisition device (LAD)
    a neural system of the brain hypothesized to permit understanding of language
  32. Infant directed speech
    a type of speech directed toward infants; characterized by short, simple sentences
  33. Motherese
    a style of speech that characterizes much of the verbal communication directed toward infants- formally known as moth erase, now known as infant-directed speech
  34. Nonverbal decoding
    infants can interpret others facial and vocal expressions that carry emotional meaning
  35. perception
    the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli involving the sense organs and brain
  36. Schemes
    organized patterns of functioning that adapt and change with mental development
  37. Assimilation
    the process by which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking
  38. Accommodation
    changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events
  39. Goal-directed behavior
    several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act to solve a problem 
  40. Object permanence
    the realization that people and objects exist even when they cannont be seen. 
  41. Deferred imitation
    a person who is no longer present is imitate later, children are able to pretend that they are driving a car, feeding a doll, cooking dinner long after they have witnessed such scenes in reality
  42. Nonverbal encoding
    the nonverbal expression of emotion
  43. Stranger anxiety
    the caution and wariness displayed by infants when encountering an unfamiliar person
  44. Separation anxiety
    the distress displayed by infants when a customary care provider departs
  45. Social referencing
    the intentional search for information about others feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and events
  46. Reciprocal socialization
    a process in which infants behaviors invite further responses from parents and other caregivers, which in turn bring about further responses from the infants
  47. Personality
    The sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another
  48. Termperament
    patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring characteristics of an individual
  49. Goodness of fit
    The notion that development is dependent on the degree of match between children's temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised
  50. When greatest height and weight occur
    In the first year of life
  51. Principles of growth and development
    • Cephalocaudal principle
    • Proximodistal principle
    • Principle of hierarchical integration
    • Principle of the independence of systems
  52. Cephalocaudal principle
    the principle that growth follows a pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds down to the rest of the body
  53. Proximodistal principle
    the principle that development proceeds from the center of the body outward
  54. principle of hierarchical integration
    the principle that simple skills typically develop separately and independently but are later integrated into more complex skills 
  55. Principle of the independence of systems
    the principle that different body systems grow at different rates
  56. SIDS
    Sudden infant death syndrome- a disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep
  57. Reflexes: When they develop, why they exist, different forms
    Table 4-3
  58. Motor development milestones
    • 3.2 months: rolling over
    • 3.3 months: grasping rattle
    • 5.9 months: sitting without support
    • 7.2 months: standing while holding on 
    • 8.2 months: grasping with thumb and finger
    • 11.5 months: standing alone well
    • 12.3 months: walking well
    • 14.8 months: building tower of two cubes
    • 16.6 months: walking up stairs
    • 23.8 months: jumping in place
  59. Calorie consumption in infants
    50 calories per lb of weight
  60. Eating patterns- breast milk vs. formula, introduction of solid foods
    Breast milk- more early digested, sterile, warm, convenient, said to increase cognitive growth leading to high adult intelligence. Creates intimacy between mother and child.

    Introducing solid food: 6 months, aren't needed till 9-12 months. Introduced one at a time. Cereal-strained fruits-veggies and other foods.
  61. Multimodal approach to perception
    considers how info that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinated. 
  62. Piaget's theory of development during infancy and toddlerhood
    see lab
  63. Information processing approach
    the model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information 
  64. Overextension and under extension of speech
    • Under- the overly restrictive use of words; common among children just mastering spoken language
    • Over- the overly broad use of words, overgeneralizing their meaning
  65. Learning theory approach to language
    the theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning 
  66. When children can show empathy to others
    24 months. 
  67. Attachment theory
    Bowlby's view- attachment is based primarily on infants needs for safety and security. 
  68. Harlow's experiment
    gave infant monkeys the choice of cuddling a wire monkey that provided food, or a soft cloth monkey that was warm but did not provide food. 
  69. Situations in which children show preference for their mothers
    stressful situations
  70. Mutual regulation model
    the model in which infants and parents learn to communicate emotional states to one another and to respond appropriately 
  71. Erikson's theory
    • Theory psychosocial development:
    • the theory that considers how individuals come to understand themselves and the meaning of others-and their own-behavior
  72. Dimensions of temperament
    Activity level: proportion of active time periods to inactive time periods

    Approach-withdrawl:The response to a new person or object, based on whether the child accepts the new situations or withdraws from it

    Adaptability: How easily the child is able to adapt to changes in his or her environment

    Quality of mood: The contrast of the amount of friendly, joyful, and pleasant behavior with unpleasant, unfriendly behavior

    Attention span and persistence: The amount of time the child devotes to an activity and the effect of distraction on that activity

    Distractibility: THe degree to which stimuli in the environment alter behavior

    Rhythmicity (regularity): the regularity of basic functions such as hunger, excretion, sleep, and wakefulness

    Intensity of reaction: the energy level or reaction of the child's response

    Threshold of responsiveness: The intensity of stimulation needed to elicit a response
  73. Benefits of child care
    children in low income households and those whose mothers are single may benefit from the educational social experiences in child care, as well as form the higher income produced by parental employment

    solve problems better, pay greater attention to others, use language more effectively 

    play well with other children
Card Set
Human Development Exam 2
human development