What is sociology?
- Sociology is the scientific stugy of
- human societies
- human behavior
- of the many groups in a given society
What is the definition of social conditions?
- Social conditions...
- are the realities of life that people create as we interact.
Examples: war, peace, poverty, wealth, education, pregnancy, etc.
What are the three levels of analysis?
What is the Macro level of analysis?
It involves looking at one or more whole societies.
Examples: USA, Canada, Mexico, Panama, Brazil, etc.
What is the Middle level of analysis?
It involves looking at a state, county, city, neighborhood, or an organization.
Examples: California, Contra Costa College, San Pablo, Parchester Village, or Contra Costa County
What is the Micro level of analysis?
It involves looking at small groups of people.
Example: family or peer group
What is the definition of a Sociological Imagination?
It refers to the ability of people to participate in social life and then step back and analyze the broader meaning of what is going on.
It is also coined by C. Wright Mills in his 1959 book titled The Sociological Imagination.
What are the two basic principles of sociology?
The two basic principles of sociology are the Social Environment Principle and Verstehen Principle.
What is the Verstehen principle?
According to Max Weber, he believed that people must put themselves in the shoes of other people and see things from their point of view to understand human behavior.
What is the Social Environment?
Emile Durkheim believed that it was important to look at the social environment to understand human behavior.
Who are the three major fountainheads of sociology?
- Karl Marx
- Max Weber
- Emile Durkheim
What are the three things Marx, Weber, and Durkheim had in common?
- All three were...
- White men from Europe
- political activists
- interested in social change at the macro level
Who was Karl Marx?
- a White man born in Germany 1818
- died in 1883
- published Das Kapital (a.k.a. Capital "The Money") in 1867
- he studied the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat
- (a.k.a. Capitalists)
- Marx took the position that the capitalists exploit the labor of the working class to make as much profit as possible.
- (a.k.a. Working Class)
- Marx took the position that people in the working class sell their labor to the capitalists to get food, clothing, shelter, etc.
Who was Max Weber?
- White man born in Germany 1864
- died in 1920
- published The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism in 1904
- studied the Protestant Capitalists and Catholic Capitalists
Protestant Capitalists studied by Max Weber
- through reinvesting profits back into the business
Catholic Capitalists studied by Max Weber
- through good deeds such as helping the poor (from teachings of Christ in The Bible)
Who was Emile Durkheim?
- White man born in France in 1858
- died in 1917
- published Suicide in 1897
- studied people commiting suicide in rural and urban areas
What did Emile Durkheim find from studying people that commited suicide in rural and urban areas?
His findings showed that in urban areas there was less social solidarity and social integration than in rural areas.
Who are the four periphereal fountainheads of sociology?
- W. E. B. Du Bois
- Ida B. Wells-Barnett
- Jane Addams
- Harriet Martineau
What were the two things Du Bois, Wells-Barnett, Addams, and Martineau had in common?
- all four have not gotten their full due and credit in sociology because of racism and sexism
- all four were political activists
Who was W. E. B. Du Bois?
- Black man born in Massachusetts in 1868
- died in 1963
- published The Philadelphia Negro
- studied The Talented Tenth and The Black Masses
Who was The Talented Tenth?
- Black men, women, and children who had managed to reach relatively high levels of education, income, wealth, and occupational prestige despite social policies of the color line and the effects of the Veil
- Du Bois believed that The Talented Tenth had a special obligation and responsibility to help the Black Masses through their struggles against the social policies of the color line and the effects of the Veil
Who was The Black Masses?
- the other 90% of Black men, women, and children who had not managed to reach to the educational, income and occupational prestige of The Talented Tenth
- Du Bois believed that The Black Masses should strive to raise their levels of education, income, and occupational prestige despite the social policies of the color line and the effects of the Veil
Who was Ida B. Wells-Barnett?
- Black woman born in Mississippi in 1862
- died in 1931
- published A Red Record in 1895
- her grandson is a well-known sociologist at UC Berkeley, named Troy Duster
- she studied Black and Whites that were lynched
Ida B. Wells-Barnett study of Black people that were lynched
- she took the position that most Black people got lynched for...
- being prosperous
- trying to vote
- or were seen as uppity by racist or jealous White people
Ida B. Wells-Barnett study of White people that lynched Black people
- she took the position that many of the White people lynching Black people came from
- upper rungs of society and not just poor White people
- Example: the Sheriff was present, schools stopped to view lynching
Who was Jane Addams?
- White woman born in Illinois in 1860
- died in 1935
- published Hull-House Maps and Papers in 1895
- she studied prosperous White people and poor White people
- received World Peace Prize for attempts to stop the World War in 1931
Addams study of prosperous White people
she took the position that prosperous White people had a special obligation and responsibility to help poor White people adjust to living in urban areas by helping them raise their levels of education, income, wealth, and occupational prestige
Addams study of poor White people
she took the position that poor White people should strive to adjust to urban areas by raising their levels of education, income, wealth, and occupational prestige
Who was Harriet Martineau?
- White woman born in England in 1802
- died in 1876
- published Society in America in 1837
- studied oppressed enslaved Africans and oppressed White women
Oppressed Enslaved Africans studied by Martineau
she took the position that slavery should be abolished and that the founders of this country were hypocrites for holding enslaved Africans in bondage
Oppressed White Women studied by Martineau
she took the position that girls should have the opportunity to be educated and have professional careers and not just be raised to breed children
What are the three major sociological perspectives?
Conflict Theoretical Perspective
..helps to understand how power affects the distribution of scarce resources and how conflict can change society.
Key concepts: conflict, dominance, power, and interest.
Interactionist Theoretical Perspective
... helps to understand how social structures are created in the course of human interaction.
Key concepts: shared expectation, interpretation, and socially created reality.
Functionalist Theoretical Perspective
... helps to understand how society is structured and how social structures work together as a system to perform the major functions of society.
Key concepts: social solidarity, social integration, and equilibrium.
Multidimensional Sociological Perspective
An approach based on the notion that all three of the major sociological perspectives are extremely powerful analytical tools and that a sociologist should combine insights and use concepts from each.
Refers to the ability of an individual or group to change the behavior of others.
"The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance." - Max Weber