Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?
D. companion cell—ground tissue
In a root, a vessel element completes its development in which area of growth?
E. zone of differentiation
Heartwood and sapwood consist of
E. secondary xylem
Which of the following is not part of an older tree's bark?
A. secondary xylem
The phase change of an apical meristem from the juvenile to the mature vegetative phase is often revealed by
C. a change in the morphology of the leaves produced
Which of the following arise from meristematic activity?
E. all of the above
Pinching off the tops of snapdragons causes the plants to make many more flowers than they would if left alone. Why does the removal of the top cause more flowers to form?
C. Removal of an apical meristem causes outgrowth of lateral buds that produce extra branches, which ultimately produce flowers
Which of these are not produced by the vascular cambium?
A. root hairs
The type of mature cell that a particular embryonic plant cell will become appears to be determined mainly by
A. the cell's final position in a developing organ
Based on the ABC model, what would be the structure of a flower that had normal expression of genes A and C and expression of gene B in all four whorls?
Which of the following does not affect self-shading?
D. stem thickness
What would enhance water uptake by a plant cell?
A.decreased ψ of the surrounding solution
B an increase in pressure exerted by the cell wall
C.mthe loss of solutes from the cell
D.man increase in ψ of the cytoplasm
E. positive pressure on the surrounding solution
E. positive pressure on the surrounding solution
A plant cell with a ψS of –0.65 MPa maintains a constant volume when bathed in a solution that has a ψS of –0.30 MPa and is in an open container. The cell has a
E. ψP of +0.35 MPa.
Which structure or compartment is not part of the apoplast?
B. the lumen of a sieve tube
Which of the following is an adaptation that enhances the uptake of water and minerals by roots?
C.active uptake by vessels
D.rhythmic contractions by cortical cells
E. pumping through plasmodesmata
Which of the following is not part of the transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism for the ascent of xylem sap?
D. active pumping of water into the xylem of roots
Photosynthesis ceases when leaves wilt, mainly because
E. stomata close, preventing CO2 from entering the leaf
Stomata open when guard cells
C. become more turgid because of an addition
Movement of phloem sap from a source to a sink
D. may translocate sugars from the breakdown of stored starch in a root up to developing shoots
Which of these is not transported via the symplast?
All the organisms on your campus make up
E. a community
Which of the following is a correct sequence of levels in life's hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?
E. nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
Which of the following is not an observation or inference on which Darwin's theory of natural selection is based?
C. Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
Systems biology is mainly an attempt to
E. construct models of the behavior of entire biological systems
Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because
B. protists have a membrane-bounded nucleus, which bacterial cells lack
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
C. the structure and function of DNA
Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
B. The fish swam in a zig-zag motion.
Which of the following best describes the logic of hypothesis based science?
B. If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
A controlled experiment is one that
C. may include experimental groups and control groups tested in parallel.
Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?
B. Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power
Most of the mass of organic material of a plant comes from
C. carbon dioxide
Micronutrients are needed in very small amounts because
B. most serve mainly as cofactors of enzymes.
The rhizosphere would best be described as
E. soil that is bound to roots and differs from the surrounding soil in containing many more microbes
Some of the problems associated with intensive irrigation include all but
A mineral deficiency is likely to affect older leaves more than younger leaves if
A. the mineral is very mobile within the plant
Two groups of tomatoes were grown under laboratory conditions, one with humus added to the soil and one a control without humus. The leaves of the plants grown without humus were yellowish (less green) compared with those of the plants grown in humus-enriched soil. The best explanation for this difference is that
A. the humus contained minerals such as magnesium and iron, needed for the synthesis of chlorophyll.
The specific relationship between a legume and its mutualistic Rhizobium strain probably depends on
E. specific recognition between the chemical signals and signal receptors of the Rhizobium strain and legume species
Mycorrhizae enhance plant nutrition mainly by
B. absorbing water and minerals through the fungal hyphae
We would expect the greatest difference in plant health between two groups of plants of the same species, one group with mycorrhizae and one group without mycorrhizae, in an environment
C. in which the soil is relatively deficient in mineral nutrients
Carnivorous adaptations of plants mainly compensate for soil that has a relatively low content of
A plant that has small, green petals is most likely to be
A seed develops from
A. an ovule
A fruit is a
E. mature ovary
Double fertilization means that
D. one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.
Some dioecious species have the XY genotype for male and XX for female. After double fertilization, what would be the genotypes of the embryos and endosperm nuclei?
B. embryo XX and endosperm XXX or embryo XY and endosperm XXY
Which statement concerning grafting is correct?
B. Stocks provide root systems for grafting
Plant biotechnologists use protoplast fusion mainly to
B. produce new hybrid species.
The basal cell from the zygote's first division develops into
B. the suspensor that anchors the embryo and transfers nutrients
The development of Bt crops raises concerns because
B. if genes for Bt toxin "escape" to related weed species, the hybrid weeds could have harmful ecological effects.
E. contains daffodil genes that increase vitamin A content
Compared with a smaller cell, a larger cell of the same shape has
A. less surface area per unit of volume
The epithelium best adapted for a body surface subject to abrasion is
C. stratified squamous.
Which of the following is not an adaptation for reducing the rate of heat exchange between an animal and its environment?
D. nonshivering thermogenesis
Which of the following animals uses the highest percent of its energy budget for homeostatic regulation?
E. a desert bird
Consider the energy budgets for a human, an elephant, a penguin, a mouse, and a snake. The ________________ would have the highest total annual energy expenditure, and the ________________ would have the highest energy expenditure per unit mass.
D. elephant; mouse
An animal's inputs of energy and materials would exceed its outputs