Old final Exam

  1. Steriod hormones

    C) bind to receptors in the nucleus of the cell
  2. Hormones are released into the blood

    A) all of these
  3. What do all hormones have in common?

    C) they bind to and interact with a receptor in the target cell
  4. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

    A) tends to inhibit osteoblasts
  5. Which of those hormones is NOT secreted by the adrenal cortex?

    A) androgens
  6. Thyroid hormone

    A) requires iodine of production
  7. The hypothalamohypophysial portal system carries hormones from the

    • B) hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
    • "hypothalamo"- starts at the hypothalamus
    • "hypophysial"- ends at the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary)
  8. If fluid intake increases dramatically over a short time frame,

    • C) ADH secretion decreases
    • ADH secretion is triggered by a rise in the solute concentration of the blood or a fall in BV/BP
  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates the release of

    D) FSH and LH
  10. Glucagon

    • B) primarily affects the liver
    • -is released when blood glucose is low and raises blood glucose levels by increasing the rates of glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver (takes glucogen out of storage and turns into glucose which then circulates in the bloodstream)
  11. If a person who has diabetes mellitus fails to take insulin, which symptoms may appear?

    • D) all of these
    • -doesn't have enough (or any) insulin to take the glucose out of the bloodstream and put it into storage. A lot of glucose extreted through the urine.
    • -ketoacidosis is a complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
  12. The primary function of ADH is to

    A) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
  13. The nervous system regulates the secretion of each of these hormones EXCEPT

    C) PTH
  14. Which of the following occurs when a hormone binds to an intracellular receptor?

    B) activation of cyclic AMP
  15. The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is

    • C) FSH
    • -the nurse cells promote spermatogenesis
  16. Your friend is in labor and is not progressing well. The doctor orders a medication to promote uterine contractions. You know that the medication ordered is

    C) oxytocin
  17. Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance except

    • A) vasodilation
    • -vasodilation would dilate the BVs so there would be a greater diameter, which would create less resistance because less of the blood is being slowed down by friction against the vessel walls.
  18. A person with A+ blood has

    B) A proteins (agglutinogens) on the red blood cells
  19. Respiratory scidosis can be

    C) compensated for by kidney excretion of bicarbonate
  20. An increase of carbon dioxide and decrease in pH results in

    • B) all of these
    • -cardiac output = HR * SV, so if it where to increase either HR or SV, it would have to increase cardiac output as well. If cardiac output increased, it would have to be due to an increase of either (or both) HR or SV.
  21. If the function of carbonic anhydrase was inhibited, which method of carbon dioxide transport in the blood would be affected to the greatest degree?

    • D) bicarbonate
    • -the rate of carbonic acid formation depends on the amount of CO2 in the solution, but the carbonic anhydrase is what catalyzes the CO2 and H2O to form bicarbonate (HCO3) and hydrogen, so it's the H2CO3 and H+ that wold be affected the most by inhibition of carbonic anhydrase
  22. Functions of plasma proteins include

    • D) regulation of osmotic pressure
    • -albumin in particular is a major contributor to osmotic pressure.
    • -also, plasma proteins function in attacking pathogens and transporting globulins
  23. The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues is called

    C) diapedisis
  24. Iron

    A) is needed to produce hemoglobin
  25. Erythropoietin

    A) is a product of the kidney
  26. The most numerous of the leukocytes is the

    C) neutrophil
  27. Platelets

    • B) all of these
    • -attachment to collagen helps to form the platelet plug
  28. Blood in the pulmonary veins returns to the

    C) L atrium
  29. If the connections between the vagus nerve and the heart are severed, the
    a) heart will beat slower
    b) stroke volume will decrease
    c) cardiac output will increase
    d) all of these
  30. -vagus nerve releases acetylcholine and is parasympathetic (rest and repose), which allows the body to relax and decrease BPM and stroke volume
  31. Which of the following would be greater?
    a) EDV when the heart rate is 150 BMP
    b) EDV when the heart rate is 90 BMP
    b) EDV when the heart rate is 90 BMP
  32. During the ejection phase of the cardiac cycle, blood exits the left ventricle through the

    C) aorta
  33. EDV-ESV is equal to

    B) stroke volume
  34. Precapillary sphincters

    B) control the blood flow into capillary beds
  35. Complement proteins

    A) can form holes in the plasma membrane of target cells
  36. Interferon

    • B) is a protein that interferes with virus production and infection
    • -also stimulates the activities of macrophages and NK cells
  37. The inflammatory response

    A) prevents the spread of infection
  38. _______ are part of cell-mediated immunity while ____ are part of antibody-mediated immunity

    C) T cells, B cells
  39. When blood pressure decreases,

    B) renin secretion increases
  40. The secondary or memory response

    B) provides better protection than the primary response
  41. Active natural immunity occurs when

    D) an individual develops a disease
  42. Which of the following is a passageway for both air and food?

    A) pharynx
  43. The serous membranes that surround the lungs are called the

    A) pleural membranes
  44. Oxygen and CO2 are exchenges across the respiratory membrane by process of

    C) diffusion
  45. The Bohr effect refers to the

    D) effect of pH on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
  46. Gas dissovles in fluid in accordance with

    B) Henry's law
  47. The chloride shift refers to the

    D) exchange of chloride ions for bicarbonate ions across the RBC membrane
  48. The major regulator of respiration is the plasma concentration of

    C) carbon dioxide
  49. Lacteals

    D) carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries
  50. Beginning at the lumen, the sequence of layers of the digestive tract wall is

    C) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
  51. The gastric phase of gastric secretion

    C) leads to the greatest volume of gastric secretion
  52. The gallbladder contracts in response to the hormone

    D) cholecystokinin
  53. Which of the following helps to keep blood nutrients at normal levels six to eight hours after a meal?

    B) breakdown of glycogen in the liver releasing glucose
  54. A hormone that promotes the conversion of lipids to glucose and the formation of gylcogen in the liver is
  55. Enterokinase

    D) activates trypsinogen
  56. The pancreas produces

    D) all of these
  57. Chief cells in the gastric mucosa secrete

    A) pepsinogen
  58. In response to cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid

    A) all of these
  59. In the electron transport chain

    C) all of these
  60. During the absorptive state

    C) the liver forms glycogen
Card Set
Old final Exam
Anatomy 508