Bio osmoregulation, excretion, muscles

  1. Deamination
    removal of an amino group from an organic compound (protein breakdown)
  2. urea
    • nitrogen waste formed from two molecules of ammonia and one molecule of carbon dioxide
    • broken down from ammonia in the liver, it is 100, 000 times less toxic
    • expelled as waste from mammals and adult amphibians
  3. uric acid
    • a waste product formed form the breakdown of nucleic acids
    • insects, land snails, and many reptiles, including birds mainly excrete uric acid
    • largely insoluble in water
    • requires more energy to produce then urea but wastes less water
  4. ureter
    A tube that conducts urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body
  5. cortex
    the outer layer of the kidney
  6. medulla
    the area inside of the cortex in the kidney
  7. renal pelivis
    the hollow area where the kidney joins the ureter
  8. nephron
    a functional unit of the kidney
  9. afferent arteriole
    a small branch of the renal artery that carries blood to the glomerulus
  10. glomerulus
    the high-pressure capillary bed that is the site of filtration in the kidney
  11. efferent arteriole
    a small branch of the renal artery that carries blood away from the glomerulus to the peritubular capillaries
  12. peritubular capillary a member of the network of small blood vessels that surround the tubule of the nephron
  13. Bowman's capsule
    the cuplike structure that surrounds the glomerulus
  14. proximal tubule
    the section of the nephron joining the Bowman's capsule with the loop of Henle
  15. Loop of Henle
    the section of the tubule that carries filtrate from the proximal tubule to the distal tubule
  16. distal tubule
    conducts urine from the loop of Henle to the collecting duct
  17. collecting duct
    a tube that carries urine from nephrons to the renal pelvis
  18. threshold level
    the maximum amount of a substance that can be removed across the nephron
  19. interstitial fluid
    the fluid that surrounds the body cells
  20. How does the kidney maintain a pH balance?
    • the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer system maintains the pH balance
    • by excreting excess H+ ions and restoring HCO3- ions to the blood
  21. Kidneys help...
    filter water from the blood and help maintain water balance
  22. The liver helps...
    to eliminate toxic nitrogen groups from the body by deamination
  23. Urine formation depends on three functions:
    filtration, reabsorption, and sectretion
  24. Secretion is...
    the active transport of waste from the blood in the nephron
  25. Diabetes Mellitus
    kidney dysfunction caused by inadequate insulin from islet cells in the pancreas, because of the high concentration of glucose left in the blood water remains in the nephron and is lost with the urine
  26. Nephritis
    • kidney diseases characterized by inflammation of the nephrons
    • may lead to irreversible kidney damage and kidney failure
  27. Kidney stones
    • are caused by the precipitation of mineral solutes from the blood
    • the sharp-sided stones can be lodged in the renal pelvis or may move down the ureter into the bladder and be passed out of the body with urine (OUCH!)
  28. Dialysis
    • Like a kidney that is properly functioning, a dialysis machine operates on the principles of diffusion and blood pressure in order to restore the proper solute balance.
    • Unlike a kidney the dialysis machine cannot perform active transport.
  29. Filtration
    pressure-filtering of body fluids
  30. reabsorption
    reclaiming valuable solutes
  31. excretion
    removing the filtrate from the system
  32. Where is glucose reabsorbed in the kidney?
    into the blood stream at the proximal convoluted tubule into the capillaries
  33. where is water reabsorbed in the kidney?
    in the descending limb if the loop of Henle, the proximal convoluted tubule, and the collecting tubule
  34. What is not filtered glomerulus?
  35. Sodium in the kidney...
    • is reabsorbed in the descending limb of Henle and it creates a concentration gradient by loop of Henle
    • active transport is required to move sodium
  36. Are the ascending and descending limbs in the loop of Henle permeable to water?
    • the ascending limb is impermeable to water but sodium is actively pumped out to produce a low water potential in medulla
    • the descending limb is permeable to water
  37. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    increases water reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney
  38. Diuretics
    inhibit the release of ADH and cause more frequent urination
  39. Aldosterone
    a hormone which increases blood volume and pressure
  40. If low blood volume and pressure occurs in the kidneys, the kidneys recognize this and...
    release renin which tells the adrenal gland to release aldosterone which increases Na+ and H2O reabsorption in the distal tubule
  41. Cardiac muscle
    the involuntary muscle of the heart
  42. smooth muscle
    the involuntary muscle found in the lining of many organs
  43. skeletal muscle
    the voluntary muscle that makes the bones of the skeleton move
  44. tendon
    a band of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
  45. antagonistic muscle
    a pair of skeletal muscles that are arranged in pairs and that work against each other to make a joint move
  46. flexor
    the muscle that must contract to bend a joint
  47. extensor
    the muscle that must contract to straighten a joint
  48. sarcolemma
    the delicate sheath that surrounds muscle fibres
  49. mylofilament
    a thread of contractile proteins found within muscle fibres
  50. Two kinds of myofilaments are....
    actin and myosin
  51. creatine phosphate
    a compound in muscle cells that releases a phosphate to ADP and helps regenerate ATP supplies in muscle cells
  52. summation
    increased muscle contraction produced by the combination of stimuli
  53. tetanus
    the state of constant muscle contraction caused by sustained nerve impulses
  54. What are the fast and slow twitch muscle fibres?
    • slow-type I
    • fast-type IIa
    • fast-type IIx
  55. The energy for muscle contraction is provided by what?
  56. Isotonic
    having that same solute concentration as another solution
  57. Osmoconformer
    • animals whose body fluids are isotonic with their surroundings and don't regulate their osmolarity
    • most marine invertebrates(no backbone) are osmoconformers
  58. Osmoregulator
    • animals that actively adjust their internal water balance to maintain osmotic pressure
    • most marine vertebrates and some invertebrates are osmoregulators
  59. Hyperosmotic
    • A condition in which the total amount of solutes (salt) in a solution is greater than that of another solution
    • Osmoregulators who live in a hyperosmotic environment have less salt then the environment does
  60. Hypoosmotic
    • a condition in which the total amount of solutes (salt) in a solution is lower than that of another solution
    • osmoregulators who live in hypoosmotic environments have more salt than the environment
  61. Kidney diagram
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Card Set
Bio osmoregulation, excretion, muscles
flashcards for bio on excretion, muscles, and osmoregulation