ID Term Define

  1. Margeret Cavendish
    • a. One of the most prominent female scientists of the 17th century from an aristocratic background
    • b. Participant in the crucial scientific debates of her time, but still excluded from entering the Royal Society
    • c. Observations upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy, in which she attacked defects of rationalist and empiricist approaches to scientific knowledge and was critical of the belief that humans could be masters of nature
  2. Messiah
    • a. Handel’s greatest work; originally an Easter offering that burst onto the stage of Musick Hall in Dublin
    • b. Known as one of those rare works that appeal immediately to everyone, and yet is indisputably a masterpiece of the highest order
    • c. Composed within 24 days without Handel leaving home
    • d. Performed in Dublin in 1742
    • e. English oratorio written for modest vocal and instrumental forces
    • f. one of the best known and frequently performed choral works in Western music
  3. Mary Wollstonecraft
    • a. Founder of feminism
    • b. Vindication of the Rights of Woman: pointed out two contradictions in views of women
    •      i. To argue that women must obey men is contrary to beliefs of the same individuals that a system based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects or slave owners over their slaves was wrong
    •           1. Subjection of women= equally wrong
    •      ii. Enlightenment based on ideal that reason is innate in all human beings
    •           1. If women have reason= they have same rights as men
    •           2. Women should have equal rights with men in education and economic and political life as well
  4. Adam Smith
    • a.       He, along with the Physiocrats, are considered the founders of economics
    • b.      Wrote the Wealth of Nations, where he attacked mercantilism in three ways—the use of tariffs, claiming that neither gold, silver, nor soil were sources of the nation’s wealth, believed the government should not interfere in economic matters and should only protect society from invasion, defend individuals in judicial matters, and keep up certain public works
    • c.       Laid the foundation for economic liberalism
  5. Charles I
    • a.       First king to be executed by the people; he was the successor to James I
    • b.      When Parliament forced him to accept the Petition of Right, he refused to allow Parliament to meet since he could not work with it; this forced him to institute his own taxes, such as ship money
    • c.       Religious dissent arose against him when he married Henrietta Maria, Louis XIII’s sister, and tried to introduce ritual into the Anglican Churchà forced to call Parliament
    • d.      Took advantage of a dispute that occurred within Parliament, leading to civil war, which led to Parliament’s victory in the first phase
    •                                                                           i.      Ended with capture of King Charles I and later his execution through beheading on Jan 30, 1649
  6. The Social Contract
    • a.       Written by Rousseau that tried to harmonize individual liberty with governmental authority and general will
    • b.      He expresses the general will of man is always right and always tends to the public advantage; people agree to be governed by their general will and the idea of assemblies
    • c.       General will represented a community’s highest aspirations, whatever was best for the entire community
  7. Afonso de Albuquerque
    a.       Set up port facilities at Goa, on the western coast of India south of present-day Mumbai; in 1511, he sailed into the harbor of Malacca on the Malay peninsula, who wanted to control it to destroy Arab spice trade and have route to Moluccas; led an attack on Malacca, giving them control of Malacca and the route to the Spice Islands
  8. Second Treatise of Government 
    Written by John Locke places sovereignty into the hands of the people, arguing that people are equal and invested with natural rights in a state of nature in which they live free from outside rule; he explains that man is not capable of protecting himself and must give up his natural power to enter the commonwealth, which means giving up their liberty for the protection of their property through legislature and laws
  9. Tycho Brahe
    a.       He was a predecessor to Kepler who was a Danish nobleman granted possession of an island where he built a castle with observatories, librarys, etc. where he compiled a record of his observations. He refuted Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system, but couldn’t accept Copernicus. His last years were as an imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II. His assistant was Kepler
  10. Catherine II 
    • a.       Autocrat of all Russia
    • b.      Wanted to reform Russia along lines of Enlightenment but knew her success was in support of the palace guard; tried to create a new law code; she questioned the institutions of serfdom, torture, and capital punishment, and advocated the principle of equality of all, but no real change
    • c.       her changes strengthened the landholding class as she divided Russia into 50 provinces, and then districts headed by nobles; her favoring of the landed nobility led to revolts from the Russian peasantry
    • d.      Expanded Russia’s territory westward into Poland and to the Black Sea
    • e.       Revolt led by Cossack Pugachev against her caused her to repress the peasantry more
Card Set
ID Term Define