Biology Exam 1

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  1. biology
    scientific study of life
  2. organized structure of life
  3. reproduction
    ability of organisms to reproduce their own kind
  4. growth & development
    controlled by dna
  5. energy processing
    use of chemical energy to power an organisms activitites and chemical reactions
  6. response to the environment
    ability to respond to environmental stimuli
  7. regulation
    abiltiy to control an organisms internal environment
  8. evolutionary adaption
    adaption evolves over many generations as individuals with traits best suited to their environments have greater reproductive success and pass their traits to their offspring
  9. biosphere
    all of the environments on earth that support life
  10. ecosystem
    all organisms living in a particular area as well as the non living components
  11. community
    entire array of organisms living in  a particular ecosystem
  12. population
    all individuals of a species living in a specific area
  13. organism
    individual living thing
  14. organ system
    several organs that cooperate in a specific function
  15. organ
    structure that is composed of tissues and that provide a specific function for the organism
  16. tissues
    group of similiar cells that perform a specific function
  17. cells
    fundamental unit of life
  18. organelle
    membrane bound structure that performs a specific function in a cell
  19. molecule
    a cluster of small chemical units called atoms held togehter by chemical bonds
  20. cells can
    regulate internal environment, take in & use energy, respond to it's environment, develop & maintain it's complex organization & give rise to new cells
  21. enclosed by membrane
  22. 2 types of cells
    prokaryotic, eukaryotic
  23. prokaryotic
    smaller, first to evlove,
  24. eukaryotic
    contain organelles found in plants, animals and fungi
  25. plants
  26. consumers
    eat plants and other animals
  27. decomposers
    acts as recyclers
  28. ecosystems must accomplish 2 major processes
    recycling of chemcial nutrients & movement of energy through the ecosystem
  29. unit of dna that transmits gentic information from parent to offspring
  30. diviersity of life come from
  31. taxonomy
    names species and classifies them into a system of broader groups
  32. bacteria
    most diverse and widespred prokaryotes
  33. archea
    are prokaryotes that often live in earth's extreme enviornments
  34. eukarya
    have eukaryotic cells
  35. darwin
    • presented evidence to support the idea of evolution.
    • natural selection
  36. natural selection
    process in which organisms with certain traits re more likely to survive and reproduce, over time this results in evolution of new species
  37. heritable variations
    individual living thing
  38. overproduction
    organisms reproduce more offspring than can survive
  39. favorable traits
    are the survivors
  40. inductive reasonnig
    draw general conclusions from many observations
  41. deductive reasoning
    come up with ways to test a hypothesis
  42. hypothesis
    proposed explanation for a set of observations
  43. theory
    supported by a large and usually growng body of evidence
  44. hypothesis must be
    testable, falsifiable
  45. goal of science
    understand natural phenomena
  46. goal of technology
    apply scientific knowledge or some specific purpose
  47. how do scientists remove a donor cells nucleus
  48. why do people want to clone organisms?
    • harvest stem cells
    • help infertile couples
    • produce desirable organisms for research & agriculture 
    • to save endangered species
  49. genetically modfied
    organisms reproduce more offspring than can survive
  50. concerns related to genetically modified organisms
    introduce allergens to the food supply
  51. molecule
    cluster of small chemical units called atoms held together by chemical bonds.
  52. cell
    most basic unit.  regulates it's internal environement, takes in & uses energy
  53. properties common to living things
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
    • carbon dioxide
  54. Transgenic organism
  55. Element
    A substance composed of atoms all with the same number, cannot be split chemically into smaller substances
  56. Trace elements
    tiny amount of chemical element present in small amounts in something such as a metal or ore
  57. Compounds
    A substance consisting of atoms joined by chemical bonds into a molecule.
  58. Chemical bonds
    attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms
  59. ionic bond
    chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion
  60. covalent bond
    2 or more atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons
  61. Solvent
    usually a liquid, capable of dissolving another substance
  62. Solute
    A substance dissolved in another substance
  63. Properties of water
    A clear, colorless, odorless, and tasteless
  64. Organic compounds
    compounds associated with life processes, are the subject matter of organic chemistry
  65. evolution
    core theme of biology
  66. attraction for shared eelctrons is called
  67. in non polar covalent bonds the electrons are shared
  68.  polar covalent bonds
    un equal
  69. Know 4 nucleotides of RNA
  70. Know the 4 nucleotides of DNA
  71. DNA structure
  72. Denaturation of proteins
  73. Saturated
  74. Unsaturated fats
  75. Enzymes
  76. Monomer
  77. Polymer
  78. four classes of macromolecules
  79. Phosphate groups
  80. hydroxyl
  81. Carbonyl
  82. Amino
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Biology Exam 1
Exam 1
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