Y2: Anaphylaxis and autoimmune

  1. Hyper sensitivity
    Inappropriate excessive immune response 


    abnormal intense reactions to allergens or other stimulus 
  2. Autoimmunity
    Inapprioprate response to self
  3. Alloimmunity
    can occur after allograph (transplant of body tissue) or allotranfusion (is a process where in a person receives their own blood for a transfusion, instead of banked donor blood).
  4. Infection
    The invasion of a host organism's bodily tissues by disease-causing organisms, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. Infections are caused by microorganisms such as viruses, prions, bacteria, and viroids, and larger organisms like macroparasites and fungi.
  5. Lymphatic system disorders examples
    • Inflammation - Lymphoedema
    • Infection - tonsillitis; cellulitis

    • Tumors- Lymphoma; Hodgkins disease
    • HIV- CD4 cells ( helper t cells), dendritic cells and macrophages are affected in HIV

    *infections and cancer cells can also be spread by lymphatic system.
  6. Lymphoma
    are cancers that affect the lymphatic system and arise when developing lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) undergo a malignant change and multiply in an uncontrolled way
  7. Lymph fluid
    • *The clear fluid found outside the cells which bathes the tissues
    • *Lymph fluid is transported to the lymph nodes where antigens are processed & killed
    • *lymph fluid leaves the node and travels to the superior vena cava where it empties into the circulatory system
  8. Lymph vessels
    transport lymph fluid which contains lymphocytes, macrophages and antigens and collects excess fluid from the body tissue
  9. Signs and symptoms of lymphatic disorders
    • *Swelling in affected arm
    • *Feeling of fullness or tightness in limb
    • *Aching, pain
    • *Hand swelling
    • *Weakness in affected arm

    • Pathophysiology
    • *whenever normal lymph drainage is distrubed swelling may occur
  10. Avoid
    *Injections, blood tests, heat/cold packs, needlestick

    • *Repetitive movements, vigorous movements
    • *Sunburn, cuts, any trauma 
    • *salt in diet
    • *elastic or restrictive cuffs on clothes, carrying heavy bags, blood pressure checks
  11. Do's
    • *Elevate arm when possible
    • *maintain healthy diet and BMI below 26
    • *Check before undertaking any sport or activity
    • *report any trauma
    • *prevent trauma
    • *maintain skin integrity/skin care regime
  12. Anaphylaxis
    • Is a type 1 hypersensitive
    • *an abnormal/hyper reactivity to a normal stimulus
    • *caused by an ummune reponse usually to repeated exposure to an antigen
    • *immediate reaction - IgE mediated resonse
    • *occurs within minutes of exposure
    • *deregulation (reduced) of mast cells and release of chemical mediators (heparin & histamine)
    • *Vasodilation & smooth muscle contraction lasts about 1 hour
    • *2nd stage can occur within 2-8 hours later
  13. chemicals released during anaphylaxis
    • *Ig E bind to mast cells & basophils
    • *mast cells explode
    • *histamine & heparin are released

    • *Leukotrienes & prostagladins are released causing:
    • Vasodilation
    • increased capillary permeability
    • urticaria (hives- skin rash)
    • Respiratory distress
    • Fluid shift
    • Vascular collapse- systemic shock and death
Card Set
Y2: Anaphylaxis and autoimmune
Altered immune & lymphatic function with a focus on anaphylaxis and autoimmune disease