304 ch6.txt

  1. Perception
    A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
  2. Attribution theory
    An attempt to determine whether an individual’s behavior is internally or externally caused
  3. Fundamental attribution error
    The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
  4. Self-serving bias
    The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors
  5. Selective perception
    The tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes
  6. Halo effect
    The tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
  7. Contrast effect
    Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
  8. Stereotyping
    Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs
  9. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    A situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception
  10. Decisions
    Choices made from among two or more alternatives
  11. Problem
    A discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state
  12. Rational
    Characterized by making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints
  13. Rational decision-making model
    • 1. Define the problem
    • 2. Identify the decision criteria
    • 3. Allocate weights to the criteria
    • 4. Develop the alternatives
    • 5. Evaluate the alternatives
    • 6. Select the best alternative
  14. Bounded rationality
    A process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
  15. Intuitive decision-making
    An unconscious process created out of distilled experience
  16. Anchoring bias
    A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information
  17. Confirmation bias
    The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments
  18. Availability bias
    The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them
  19. Escalation of commitment
    An increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information
  20. Randomness error
    The tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events
  21. Risk aversion
    The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount to a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff
  22. Hindsight bias
    The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted the outcome
  23. Utilitarianism
    A system in which decisions are made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number
  24. Whistle-blowers
    Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders
  25. Creativity
    The ability to produce novel and useful ideas
  26. Three-component model of creativity
    The proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation
Card Set
304 ch6.txt