chapter 4 chem

  1. boxes (or circles) represent the orbitals containing electrons
    orbital diagram
  2.  when an atom is "built up" by placing the electrons of an atom in the sublevels in order of increasing energy
    electron configuration
  3. includes hydrogen, helium and the elements in group 1A and group 2A
    s block elements
  4. consists of the elements in group 3A to group 8A
    p block elements
  5. first appear after calcium with the ten columns of elements of the transition metals
    d block
  6. includes all the elements in the two rows at the bottom of the periodic table
    f block elements
  7. electrons in the outermost energy levels are called
    valence electrons
  8. indicates the number of valence electrons for the elements in each vertical column
    group numbers
  9. group 1A has how many valence electrons?Group 2A? Group 7A?
    1, 2,7
  10. distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons is called
    atomic radius
  11. typically decrease from left to right on the periodic table
    atomic radii of representatice elements
  12. change only slightly because electrons are adding to inner d sublevels
    atomic radii of the transistion elements
  13. the energy needed  to remove the least tightly bound electron from an atom in the gaseous state is called
    ioization energy
  14. forms when an electron is removed from a neutral atom
  15. the ionization energy generally decreases
    going down a group
  16. going across a period from left to right
    the ionization energy generally increases
  17. one or more dots representing the valence electron of an atom are written along side the atomic symbol of an elements
    electron-dot symbol
  18. result from the formation of chemical bonds between two or more differnet elements
  19. electrons are transferred from atoms of metals to atoms of nonmetals
    ionic bonding
  20. form between atoms of nonmetals and valence electrons are shared
    convalent bonds
  21. in both ionic and convalent compounds, the atoms tend to acquire the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas
    octet rule
  22. atoms form compounds by
    losing, gaining, or sharing electrons to acquire an octet of 8 valence electrons
  23. the valence electrons of a metal are tranferred to a nonmetal
    ionic bonding
  24. because the ionization energies of metals of groups 1A,2A,3A are low
    these metal atoms readily lose their valence electron to nonmetals
  25. number of valence electrons in the electron configuration of a noble gas
  26. electrical charge
    ionic charge
  27. cation
    positive ions
  28. negatively charged ions
  29. consists of postive and negatice ions
    ionic compounds
  30. ions are held together by strong elctrical attractions between the opposite charges
    ionic bonds
  31. bond in which the attraction between the ions is very strong, which makes the melting points of ionic compounds high
    ionic compounds
  32. indicates the number and kinds of ions that make up the ionic compound
    formula of an ionic compound
  33. the sum of the ionic charges in the formula of an ionic compound
    always 0
  34. Transition metal in Group B and the representative metals in Group 4A also form
    positive ions
  35. when a group of atom have acquired an electrical charge
    polyaomic ion
  36. most polyatomic ions consist of nonmetals such as
     phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, or nirtogen convalently bonded to oxygen atoms
  37. most common polyatomic anions end in
  38. bending of light
  39. energy levels are assigned the value of a positive integar called
    principle quatum number (n)
  40. shells
    energy levels
  41. sublevel
  42. formula for max number of electrons per shell
    2(n) squared
  43. what is the max number of electrons per shell in levels 1-4?
    • 1=2
    • 2=8
    • 3=18
    • 4=32
  44. region of the greatest probabilty of finding an electron is called
  45. shows the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus in energy levels is called
    electon configuration
  46. the electrons in the outer most energy level of an atom. Responsible for the properties of that element is called
    valence electron
  47. how do you find the number of valence electron?
    same as the group number
  48. what indicates the number of atoms of an element
  49. pure substance composed of 2 or more elements, with a definit composistion
  50. a compound is
  51. all metals give
  52. nonmetals
    accept electrons
  53. - ion
  54. nonmetals gain electrons and form
    - ions or anions
  55. metals lose e- and form
    + ions or cation
  56. ends in ide
    nonmetal ion
  57. if only has dots then it an
  58. if has a charge then it is an
  59. difference between the number of protons and the number of electron, written in the upper right corner of the symbol for the ion
    ionic charge
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chapter 4 chem
chapter 4 continued