Enzymes: Source, Function, Control

  1. Salivary
    • Salivary glands (exocrine)

    • Begin carbohydrate breakdown (starches) into smaller units
    • Presence of food or just thinking about food, which causes salivation; can’t function in stomach, only in the mouth
  2. Gastrin
    • Gastric glands

    • Promote realease of gastric gland products and movements
    • Distension of stomach/ parasympathetic stimulation
  3. Pepsin
    • Chief cells of the gastric glands

    • Begin protein breakdown; does not break down; protein splitting enzyme
    • Gastrin
  4. HCl
    • Parietal cells of the gastric glands

    • Activates pepsinogen to pepsin
    • Gastrin and the parasympathetic
    • Distension stimulating the parasympathetic and release of gastrin
  5. CKP
    • Krypts of Lieberkuhn

    • Promote release of digestive enzymes from pancreas, krypts, and release of bile
    • Distension of the small intestine due to chyme entering/ parasympathetic stimulation
  6. Secretin
    • Hormone released from Krypts of Lieberkuhn

    • Stimulate secretion of sodium bicarbonate from the pancreas
    • When chyme enters the small intestine, the acidity causes it to be released
  7. Small intestinal enzymes
    • Small intestine (Krypts of Lieberkuhn)

    • Complete digestion of foods
    • Entrance of chyme into the small intestine, causing distension, which stimulates the parasympathetic to secrete digestive juices
  8. enterokinase
    • Krypts of Lieberkuhn

    • Activates trypsinogen to trypsin
    • Chyme enters, causing distension of the small intestine, which, in turn, causes parasympathetic to stimulate release of digestive juices and enterokinase
  9. trypsinogen/ trypsin
    • Pancreas

    • Active form: protein-splitting enzyme
    • In active form, it activates chymotrypsinogen and carboxypeptidase
    • CKP/ parasympathetic stimulation
  10. Chymotrypsin/ chymotrypsinogen
    • Pancreas

    • Protein-splitting enzyme
    • CKP/ parasympathetic stimulation
  11. Carboxypeptidase
    • Pancreas

    • protease; protein-splitting enzyme
    • CKP/ parasympathetic stimulation
  12. Sodium Bicarbonate
    • Pancreas

    • Neutralizes the acidic chyme before it continues passage through the small intestine
    • Release triggered by secretin
  13. Bile
    • Liver

    • Emulsification of fats
    • CKP/ parasympathetic stimulation
  14. Pancreatic Enzymes
    • Pancreas

    • Complete digestion of foods
    • CKP/ parasympathetic stimulation
Card Set
Enzymes: Source, Function, Control
Nutrition and Digestion