CIS 5800 Final C

  1. 5 Different major processes in project management plan
    • 1. Initating
    • 2. Planning - the most extensive and involved process in project management; many different aspects of project planning, from planning for scope, schedule, human, resources, quality, risk, and procurement.
    • 3. Executing - (Project execution) the project plan is carried out; it is where the product of the project is created. For IT projects, execution is where the system is developed and released. Project execution is part of Project Integration Management (PIM). The phase of a project in which work towards direct achievement of the project’s objectives and the production of the project’s deliverables occurs.
    • 4. Monitoring and controlling
    • 5. Closing
  2. 6 Causes of project failure
    • 1. Failed communication within the project
    • 2. Poor planning
    • 3. Poor quality control
    • 4. Poor project management
    • 5. Lack of attention to human and organizational factors
    • 6. Lack of attention to detail
  3. Project Integration Management (PIM) comprises 7 major processes
    • 1. Develop project charter - deal with planning
    • 2. Develop preliminary project scope statement - deal with planning
    • 3. Develop project management plan - deal with planning
    • 4. Direct and manage project execution - this chapter is covering
    • 5. Monitor and control project work
    • 6. Integrated change control
    • 7. Close project
  4. 7 Project execution processes
    • **1. Direct and manage project execution: Involves managing the technical and organizational processes and interfaces that are necessary for completing the project work identified in the project management plan. Completing the work envisioned in the plan results in producing the deliverables defined there.
    • 2. Perform quality assurance: Is part of the Project Quality Management knowledge area; involves evaluating project progress on a regular basis in order to determine if the project will satisfy established quality standards.
    • 3. Acquire project team: Is part of the Human Resources Management knowledge area; involves getting the people needed to complete the project.
    • 4. Develop project team: Is part of the Human Resources Management knowledge area; involves improving project performance through improving individual and group competencies and interactions.
    • 5. Information distribution: Is part of the Project Communications Management knowledge area; means making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
    • 6. Request seller responses: Is part of project procurement; involves obtaining bids and proposals for performing project plan activities.
    • 7. Select sellers: Is part of project procurement; involves choosing from among the proposals that have been received. Evaluation and selection of vendor bids.

    • Execution Process Relationships
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  5. Project plan execution inputs, tools & techniques, and outputs
    • .1 Inputs
    • .1 Project management plan
    • .2 Approve corrective actions: Anything that can be done to bring project performance back in line with the plan. For example, corrective action will need to be taken when the project manager realizes that activities on the critical path will not be completed on time.
    • .3 Approved preventive actions: Any actions that minimize the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks.
    • .4 Approved change requests: Documented and authorized changes to the project scope, either to reduce it or to enlarge it.
    • .5 Approved defect repair: Occur when defects are found in products during an audit and the authorization is sought to fix them. These products are created as part of the project's work.
    • .6 Validated defect repair: Notifications that the repairs have either been approved or have been denied approval.
    • .7 Administrative closure procedure: All those administrative activities and interactions needed to close out the project.

    • .2 Tools & Techniques
    • .1 Project management methodology: Defines a process for the project team to use to execute the project management plan. The methodology provides the approach the team will use to turn the plan into reality.
    • .2 Project management information system: Can be anything that helps the team perform the work described in the plan, whether bought off-the-shelf or built in-house.

    • .3 Outputs
    • .1 Deliverables: Simply the products and services identified in the project plan that must be made or provided in order to complete the project. They are the reason for the project in the first place.
    • .2 Requested changes: Reflects the fact that projects are not static and that product requirements change even as the project plan is being executed. They typically result from processing the approved change request inputs, one of the seven inputs to project plan execution. These changing requirements may involve resources and scheduling as well as functional requirements and features.
    • .3 Implemented change requests: Approved change requests that have been executed.
    • .4 Implemented corrective actions: Approved corrective actions that have been successfully implemented.
    • .5 Implemented preventive actions: Approved preventive actions that have been successfully performed.
    • .6 Implemented defect repair: Approved defect repairs that have been successfully carried out.
    • .7 Work performance information: This information reflects the status of project activities recorded in the project plan. When the project task has been completed, the information has to be communicated to the project manager and documented in the project information system, along with the resources that were used to complete the task. The extent to which quality standards have been met must also be recorded. In addition to information about schedule, resources, and quality, work performance information also can include information about cost, the status of deliverables, and documented lessons learned. It is important to remember that performance reporting also involves reporting on work that has not yet been completed, especially if the work is behind schedule.
  6. 10 Tips for new managers
    • 1. Don't make promises you can't or won't keep: This is one of the worst things a new manager can do. Not keeping promises erodes trust and leads to a lack of respect on the part of the employee.
    • 2. Don't offer inappropriate awards: Rewards should match performance. A coffee mug is appropriate for cutting a couple of days off the schedule, not for saving the project millions of dollars.
    • 3. Reward ambitious workers: With important tasks.
    • 4. Set aside time to meet with workers: To talk about things from both your perspective and theirs.
    • 5. Ask workers about their career goals: And how you can help them achieve their objectives.
    • 6. Offer your top performers: Opportunities for training.
    • 7. Ask workers about their outside interests: And offer them rewards that match those interests, such as gift certificates and event tickets.
    • 8. Comment on good or bad work right away: Don't save feedback for regularly scheduled employee performance evaluations.
    • 9. Don't assume good workers know how much they are valued: People don't always know how good they are and how much they are appreciated. Don't ignore good workers, as that is a sure way to get them to stop doing so well.
    • 10. Take your role as manager seriously: Don't put off rewards and feedback, and don't downplay the importance of regularly scheduled performance evaluations.
  7. **Monitoring progress
    The process of keeping track of all project tasks and the details surrounding each one

    • Once the project plan has been approved, then all of the tasks have been identified, along with who is responsible for each task, the resources that are necessary to complete them, the deliverables for each task, the milestones for the deliverables to be delivered, and the relationship of each task to all of the other tasks
    • The more well-defined the schedule and the deliverables, the easier it is to check progress
    • Must keep track of all the details; some techniques to keep track the details are PERT and Gantt charts
    • A more powerful method is a project information system, but the basic idea of an organized system for project management is the same
  8. **6 Simultaneous things that project managers must do
    • 1. Allocate and distribute work to team members at the right time while also managing task dependencies
    • 2. Update progress of each task
    • 3. Determine consequences and predict their effects on future tasks and milestones
    • 4. Manage changing team membership
    • 5. Manage roles of third parties, such as vendors and suppliers
    • 6. Enforce ownership of tasks

    • The first 3 activities involve monitoring. Project managers can't allocate work during execution unless they know the status of all the tasks being worked on at a particular point in time and who is assigned to work on each task. The progress on a task can't be updated unless the project manager knows the status of the task. The effects of the present on the future can't be determined unless the project manager understands the present.
    • The last 3 activities have more to do with managing personnel than with monitoring. Team membership is not static, and people leaving and joining a project can have significant impacts. Tasks left unfinished through a team member's departure have to be reassigned to someone else, and new people have to be brought up to speed on the project and how they can contribute. The project manager also has to deal with people outside the project team, such as vendors, who also contribute to the project. The more procurement a project involves, the more effort the project manager will have to expand on managing third-party relationships through contract administration. Finally, the project manager has to make sure that the people assigned to different tasks, whether inside the project organization or working for a third party, continue to take responsibility for those tasks.
  9. 3 Things among others that project managers do during project execution activities
    • **1. Holding project kickoff meeting: A ceremonial meeting marking the beginning of a project in a very public and memorable way. Can be a party or a small meeting where the project team meets with the project sponsor, who explains what is involved and what is expected for the project. Who attends the kickoff sends a strong signal to the project team and the company as a whole as to how important the project is.
    • 2. Establishing and managing channels for communication: There are many different ways for teams to communicate during project execution, including project information systems, regular meetings, all types of electronic communication, written reports, and Web-based systems that run on the organization's intranet.
    • 3. Managing procurement activities: Three key procurement activities occur during project execution - (1) Soliciting bids and quotes and proposals from potential vendors; (2) Deciding among vendors; and (3) Administering the contract with the winning vendor. For medium and large projects, many different procurement activities will be going on simultaneously, with more than one solicitation and with more than one contract to administer.
  10. **7 Potential Execution Problems
    • 1. Lack of good data on activity progress
    • 2. Inadequate definition of requirements
    • 3. Frequent and uncontrolled changes to the baseline requirements
    • 4. Poor time and cost estimates
    • 5. Difficulties in concluding the project because of a lack of completion criteria
    • 6. Frequent replacement of developmental personnel
    • 7. Inadequate tracking and directing of project activities
  11. **10 Of Steve McConnell's 36 classic development mistakes
    • People-related
    • 1. Weak personnel: Employees who are not adequately trained in the skills necessary to a particular project; they will struggle and project will suffer.
    • 2. Adding people to a project late: Adding more people also add more need for coordination among all the people on the project, new and old; and actually ends up reducing productivity on a project.
    • 3. Unrealistic expectations

    • Process-related
    • 4. Insufficient planning
    • 5. Overly optimistic schedules
    • 6. Planning to catch up later

    • Product- related
    • **7. Feature creep: The tendency of system requirements to change over the lifetime of the development project; more and more features that were not in the original specifications for the application "creep in" during the development process. The average project may see a 25% change in requirements, all of which can delay the project and add costs. Changes to an application typically cost 50 to 200 times less if they are made during requirements determination rather than during the physical design process.
    • **8. Requirements gold-plating: An application may have more requirements than it needs, even before the development project begins. In addition to being unnecessary, many of these requirements can be extreme and complex.

    • Technology-related
    • **9. Silver-bullet syndrome: Occurs when developers believe a new and usually untried technology is all that is needed to cure the ills of any development project. In application development, however, there is no silver bullet. No one technology can solve every problem.
    • 10. Overestimated savings from new tools or methods
  12. Managing change
    The process of dealing with change requests during project execution

    • How a project managers deal with changing requirements:
    • 1. It's important to note that every request for change does not result in change to the requirements
    • 2. Every request should be documented
    • 3. Processes should set up to review each request to determine if it can or should be accepted; every change that is accepted will affect the project deliverables, the schedule, and budget, so changes have to be considered very seriously
    • 4. Change in team membership such as quit, add people when needed, relocated, etc.; it's important to recognize that project team membership is fluid and dynamic, and project managers should anticipate and plan for changes in personnel to whatever extent they can

    • •Project changes:
    • –Change request processes must be in place
    • –Not all accepted
    • –Accepted changes can affect schedule/ budget and deliverable
    • •Team changes:
    • –Project members will come and go
    • –Plan for member turnover
  13. **Project execution after outsourcing
    • •Reaction to outsourcing:
    • –Outrage; fear; harder-working; guilt
    • •Don’t ignore issues – reactions affect work
    • –Let employees vent
    • –Be honest
    • –Counseling may be needed
  14. 5 Methods to support team communication
    • 1. Meetings: If they can be short, well-run, and focused, meetings can be very effective for exchanging information. If the purpose of a regularly scheduled staff meeting is for everyone to report on their progress and their problems and for the project manager to provide information on the larger project status, then meetings can work well. Topics drift; lack of contribution by member; attitude of “let me get back to my real work”; or are they organized, focused, well-executed?
    • 2. Written reports: Preparation and distribution of written reports about the project and its progress. The emphasis here is on written, rather than oral, and regular, rather than ad hoc. We should also emphasize that the reports need to be timely and accurate.
    • 3. Project management information system: Once project managers have status information, they can use it to update the status of the overall project and determine just where things are and how far things are from where they want them to be. As you have seen, project management information systems (e.g., Microsoft Project) make the project manager's job in this regard much easier. A host of information systems are available to support project management, from shareware to commercial systems that run on every conceivable platform.
    • 4. Electronic communication: Due to online chat, audioconferencing, and videoconferencing, meeting participants can be geographically dispersed during a same-time meeting. People who are far away from the meeting place can still participate. Similarly, the meeting can be asynchronous, with people contributing over time, so that the meeting itself might span a week, giving people the opportunity to log in and contribute over that entire period. As for reports, they can be transmitted in the body of e-mail messages or they can be attachments. Alternatively, they can be posted to Web sites created to support project management. (flexible and virtual)
    • 5. Web-based solutions: Direct updating by team members and third parties is supported with Web-based access to the project information system. Users can access the system through their Web browsers and report on the status of their tasks. An example of a commercial system especially relevant to project execution is ProAct International's Project Management Execution (PME) Web-based solution. Users can access the system from anywhere they have access to a Web browser. They can update the status of their tasks, and the overall project software is immediately updated. Team members can notify each other of when their tasks will be completed and availability for new work. Project managers will then be able to monitor the project in real time.
  15. Documentation
    • Communication is usually accompanies by documentation.
    • Provides a record of event for review, audit or lessons learned.
    • It creates a record of how the project proceeds over time, is important for 3 reasons:
    • 1. A record of the process is valuable for the project team in case they need to trace how a decision was made or how a product specification has changed during the project.
    • 2. Documentation provides a record that can be audited or that can be used as part of a legal defense in case of disputes between buyers and suppliers.
    • 3. Documentation from an outstandingly successful project may be used as the source of best practices to improve processes in other projects.
  16. **Project Management Institute Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
    • 1.1 Vision and Purpose
    • As practitioners of project management, we are committed to doing what is right and honorable. We set high standards for ourselves and we aspire to meet these standards in all aspects of our lives—at work, at home, and in service to our profession.
    • 1.2 Persons to Whom the Code Applies
    • The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct applies to:
    • 1.2.1 All PMI members
    • 1.2.2 Individuals who are not members of PMI but meet one or more of the following criteria:
    • .1 Non-members who hold a PMI certification
    • .2 Non-members who apply to commence a PMI certification process
    • .3 Non-members who serve PMI in a volunteer capacity

    • 2.1 Description of Responsibility
    • Responsibility is our duty to take ownership for the decisions we make or fail to make, the actions we take or fail to take, and the consequences that result.
    • 2.2 Responsibility: Aspirational Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community:
    • 2.2.1 We make decisions and take actions based on the best interests of society, public safety, and the environment.
    • 2.2.2 We accept only those assignments that are consistent with our background, experience, skills, and qualifications.
    • 2.2.3 We fulfill the commitments that we undertake – we do what we say we will do.
    • 2.2.4 When we make errors or omissions, we take ownership and make corrections promptly. When we discover errors or omissions caused by others, we communicate them to the appropriate body as soon they are discovered. We accept accountability for any issues resulting from our errors or omissions and any resulting consequences.
    • 2.2.5 We protect proprietary or confidential information that has been entrusted to us.
    • 2.2.6 We uphold this Code and hold each other accountable to it.
    • 2.3 Responsibility: Mandatory Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • Regulations and Legal Requirements
    • 2.3.1 We inform ourselves and uphold the policies, rules, regulations and laws that govern our work, professional, and volunteer activities.
    • 2.3.2 We report unethical or illegal conduct to appropriate management and, if necessary, to those affected by the conduct.
    • Ethics Complaints
    • 2.3.3 We bring violations of this Code to the attention of the appropriate body for resolution.
    • 2.3.4 We only file ethics complaints when they are substantiated by facts.
    • 2.3.5 We pursue disciplinary action against an individual who retaliates against a person raising ethics concerns.

    • 3.1 Description of Respect
    • Respect is our duty to show a high regard for ourselves, others, and the resources entrusted to us. Resources entrusted to us may include people, money, reputation, the safety of others, and natural or environmental resources.
    • An environment of respect engenders trust, confidence, and performance excellence by fostering mutual cooperation — an environment where diverse perspectives and views are encouraged and valued.
    • 3.2 Respect: Aspirational Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community:
    • 3.2.1 We inform ourselves about the norms and customs of others and avoid engaging in behaviors they might consider disrespectful.
    • 3.2.2 We listen to others’ points of view, seeking to understand them.
    • 3.2.3 We approach directly those persons with whom we have a conflict or disagreement.
    • 3.2.4 We conduct ourselves in a professional manner, even when it is not reciprocated.
    • 3.3 Respect: Mandatory Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • 3.3.1 We negotiate in good faith.
    • 3.3.2 We do not exercise the power of our expertise or position to influence the decisions or actions of others in order to benefit personally at their expense.
    • 3.3.3 We do not act in an abusive manner toward others.
    • 3.3.4 We respect the property rights of others.

    • 4.1 Description of Fairness
    • Fairness is our duty to make decisions and act impartially and objectively. Our conduct must be free from competing self interest, prejudice, and favoritism.
    • 4.2 Fairness: Aspirational Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community:
    • 4.2.1 We demonstrate transparency in our decision-making process.
    • 4.2.2 We constantly reexamine our impartiality and objectivity, taking corrective action as appropriate.
    • 4.2.3 We provide equal access to information to those who are authorized to have that information.
    • 4.2.4 We make opportunities equally available to qualified candidates.
    • 4.3 Fairness: Mandatory Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • Conflict of Interest Situations
    • 4.3.1 We proactively and fully disclose any real or potential conflicts of interest to the appropriate stakeholders.
    • 4.3.2 When we realize that we have a real or potential conflict of interest, we refrain from engaging in the decision-making process or otherwise attempting to influence outcomes, unless or until: we have made full disclosure to the affected stakeholders; we have an approved mitigation plan; and we have obtained the consent of the stakeholders to proceed.
    • Favoritism and Discrimination
    • 4.3.3 We do not hire or fire, reward or punish, or award or deny contracts based on personal considerations, including but not limited to, favoritism, nepotism, or bribery.
    • 4.3.4 We do not discriminate against others based on, but not limited to, gender, race, age, religion, disability, nationality, or sexual orientation.
    • 4.3.5 We apply the rules of the organization (employer, Project Management Institute, or other group) without favoritism or prejudice.

    • 5.1 Description of Honesty
    • Honesty is our duty to understand the truth and act in a truthful manner both in our communications and in our conduct.
    • 5.2 Honesty: Aspirational Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community:
    • 5.2.1 We earnestly seek to understand the truth.
    • 5.2.2 We are truthful in our communications and in our conduct.
    • 5.2.3 We provide accurate information in a timely manner.
    • 5.2.4 We make commitments and promises, implied or explicit, in good faith.
    • 5.2.5 We strive to create an environment in which others feel safe to tell the truth.
    • 5.3 Honesty: Mandatory Standards
    • As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • 5.3.1 We do not engage in or condone behavior that is designed to deceive others, including but not limited to, making misleading or false statements, stating half-truths, providing information out of context or withholding information that, if known, would render our statements as misleading or incomplete.
    • 5.3.2 We do not engage in dishonest behavior with the intention of personal gain or at the expense of another.
Card Set
CIS 5800 Final C
Chapter 11 only