Chapter 8

  1. What are the 3 mechanisms of bacteria use to adapt to their environments?
    • Natural Selection
    • Mutation
    • Gene Transfer
  2. What is a genetic change?
    A change that alters an organisms genotype?
  3. What are the observable characteristics of an organism?
  4. What is a wild-type organism?
    Properties are similiar to the organsim first isolated in nature.
  5. What is a spontaneous mutation?
    An inhertiable spontaneous change in the base sequence of DNA
  6. What is a base substitution?
    Incorrect base is incorporated in DNA
  7. What is a point mutation?
    One base pair is changed
  8. What is a frame shift mutation?
    When the codons shift, and the reading frame is moved.
  9. What are the mechanisms of Gene Transfer?
    • DNA-mediated transformation
    • Transduction
    • Conjugation
  10. What is transformation?
    The transfer of naked DNA from one bacterium to another
  11. What is transduction?
    DNA transfer via a virus
  12. What is conjugation?
    Bacterial "sex"
  13. What is a pilus structure?
    • Long protien structure that comes out of the cell
    • The "penis"
  14. What is a plasmid?
    A circular strand of DNA that lies outside the chromosme
Card Set
Chapter 8
Microbiology: A human perspective - Chapter 8