pediatrics 2

  1. mesoderm cells unite to form what?
    42-44 pairs of somites
  2. 4th week somites give rise to what?
    • sclerotomes (which migrate to each side of notochord to form vertebral bodies)
    • myotomoes
    • dermatomes

    (there's more detail on this, but I think it's too minute to memorize)
  3. which layer is affected if you have congenital scoliosis/
  4. 2 causes of congenital scoliosis (what's going on in the vertebrae)
    • vertebral formation failure: hemivertebrae or wedged vertebrae
    • vertebral segmentation failure: the vert don't seperate properly --> a bar w no growth plate or disk btwn vertebrate - it's a failure of resegmentation of sclerotomes
  5. lat, ant, post vertebral deformities lead to what?
    • lat --> scoliosis
    • ant --> kyphosis
    • post -->. lordosis
  6. torticollis
    • twisted neck w head tipped to one side
    • congenital vertebral issues can look this way if the defect is at the cervical or cervicothoracic region
  7. 2 varieties of vertebral formation defects
    • hemivertebrae
    • wedged vertebrae
  8. some non-obvious signs of congenital scoliosis
    • patch of hair on back
    • midline skin hemangioma
    • congenital heart defects
    • kidney defects
    • LLD
  9. plagiocephally
    flattening of skull bones on one side
  10. congenital scoliosis may co-exist w a syndrome such as VACTERL which stands for what?
    • V: vertebral abnormalities
    • A: anal atresia: anus doesn't open to outside of body
    • C: cardiac defects
    • T: tracheal anomalies (ex; tracheoesophageal fistula)
    • E: esophageal atresia; esophagus doesn't connect to stomach
    • R: renal
    • L: limb abnormalities (absent or displaced thumbs, polydactyly, syndactyly, a missing bone in arms or legs)
    • (so if a kid has scoliosis, keep an eye out for this stuff)
  11. congenital heart defects are in 30% of congenital scoliosis pts. name 3 varieties of this
    • atrial or ventral septal defects
    • patent ductus arteriousus
    • tetrology of fallot

    (can also have chest wall deformities, like multiple rib fusions)
  12. organogenetic period is when?
    • 4-8 weeks
    • by the end of this all the main organ systems have begun to develop
  13. teratogens
    • any agent causing a birth defect
    • drugs, chemicals, alcohol,anticonvulsants, infections, env factors...

    critical periods are when cellural differentiation and morphogenisis are at their peaks
  14. fetal alcohol syndrom
    • 10-20% of all cases of MR
    • a bunch of other sad symptoms
    • including, of course, hypotonia
  15. some symptoms of hypotonia
    • poor postural endurance
    • recurvatum at knees
    • hyper ext in elbows
    • loose in joints
    • tired
    • poor endurance
    • problems w gross motor skills
  16. when do fetuses get smell, taste, hearing, blink reflex?
    • smell: 28 weeks
    • taste: 13 weeks
    • hearing: 24 weeks
    • blink as a startle response to loud noise: 28 weeks
  17. timeline for eye dev
    • 23-24 weeks - structures and pathways are formed but eyelids are fused
    • 24-28 weeks - eyelids open
    • 34 weeks - pupillary reflex (shine a bright light and the eyes close)

    there's so much more detail in this lecture -- I'm just reading it for now, holding off on carding til she gives info about the test
Card Set
pediatrics 2
pediatrics spring 2013