Ornithology Lecture 1

  1. Dr. Sue Haig
    • USGS biologist
    • president of American Ornithologists' Union
  2. Ernst Meyer
    • Neo-Darwinian 
    • Biological species concept
  3. What is the taxonomic information for birds (Domain-Class)
    Domain:         Eukarya

    Kingdom:       Animalia

    Phylum:         Chordata

    *subphylum*: Vertebrata

    Class:            Aves
  4. How many bird families are there?
  5. How many bird genera are there?
    roughly 2,000
  6. How many species of birds are there (approx)?
    Approx 10,000
  7. Lumpers/Splitters
    • Lumpers group species together despite variation
    • Splitters separate by variation (esp. DNA)
  8. Birds in Art
    40,000 year old paintins in Australia, Apache rock paintings, CP, "The Birds", etc
  9. Mark Catesby
    • Englishman who lived in VA
    • Published Natural History of Caroline, Florida and the Bahama Islands in mid 1700s.
    • First published work on the flora and fauna of NA
    • Still pictures
  10. First published work on the flora and fauna of NA
    Natural History of Caroline, Florida and Bahama Islands

    by Mark Catesby
  11. Alexander Wilson
    • Wrote American Onithology (early 1800s)
    • "The Father of American Ornithology)
    • Son of a Scottish smuggler
    • more life in illustrations than Catesby
  12. John James Audobon
    • Wrote Birds of America
    • life-sized prints (elephant-folio)
    • more artistic, brought birds to life
    • Showed birds in action and detailed life history
  13. Charles Darwin
    • 1859: Origin of Species
    • based his theory on morphological characteristics of Galapagos finches
  14. Margaret Morse Nice
    • Wrote The Birds of Oklahoma in 1931; it was the first written organized record of species in OK
    • Pioneered the techniques for observing animals in the wild
    • Lived in Norman, where her husband was on the OU faculty.
    • First female president of the Wilson Ornithological Society
  15. George Miksch "Doc" Sutton
    • great illustrator and writer
    • Important in OK ornithology
  16. US State Societies
    • Ex. Oklahoma Ornithological Society
    • publishes the Bulletin of the Oklahoma Ornithological Society (BOOS)
  17. Arthur A. "Doc" Allen
    • Founder of Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology
    • only systematic study of ivory billed woodpeckers (produced only recordings and videos)
    • started citizen scientist mvt
  18. Jim Tanner
    1936 study of ivory billed woodpeckers in a Louisianna swap
  19. Passenger Pigeon
    • extinct in the wild in 1885
    • large colonies were easily targeted
    • development of railways allowed quick transportation.
    • Habitat loss
  20. Millinery Trade
    sold bird feathers for use in hats
  21. Frank Chapman
    • ornithologist who found 40 different species on 700 ladies' hats in N
    • started Christmas bird count
  22. George Grinnell
    published first "Audubon" magazine dedicated to raising awareness of the conservation of native birds.
  23. Massachusetts Audubon
    • first 1,000 ladies who came together to protest the use of wild bird feathers.
    • got state to pass a law banning sale of wild bird feathers
    • late 1800s
  24. Aigrettes
    • the long feathers taken from breeding herons/egrets
    • prized for hats
  25. 1903, Teddy Roosevelt established
    • first National Wildlife Refuge at Pelican Island, FL
    • set up to protect birds from plume hunters
    • American Ornithologists' Union paid to hire a warden 
  26. Guy Bradley Award
    National Wildlife Federation's highest honor
  27. Migratory Bird Treaty Act
    • 1918
    • outlaws the hunt, pursuit, capture, annoyance, trade, etc of migratory birds
    • requires permit to hunt, band birds, or pick up feathers.
  28. Eskimo Curlew
    • fattened up before migration (from Alaska, to New England, to South America)
    • "doe birds"
    • hunted for food.
  29. Campephilus principalis
    • "lover of grubs, principally"
    • Ivory Billed Woodpecker
    • white spots visible when perched
    • flew above forest canopy
    • 3rd largest woodpecker in the world
  30. Last place in OK with Ivory Billed Woodpecker 
    • Broken Bow Lake 
    • was later flooded 
  31. History of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker
    • observed by Mark Catesby 
    • specimen caught by Wilson
    • Audubon expressed concern for the species in the 1820s
    • targeted by collectors and for their feathers
  32. Camp Ephilus
    • 1935
    • Cornell expedition
    • estimated 22 individuals left
    • Doc Allen, Doc Sutton, Lekkogg, Tanner, and Kuhn.
  33. 1844
    Year the Ivory Billed Woodpecker went extinct
  34. Singer Tract
    • area of study for Camp Ephilus
    • sold by Singer to Chicago Mill
    • Conservation groups gathered enough money to buy it, but the Chicago Mill refused to sell.
  35. Territory required for 1 Ivory-billed territory
    • territory required for 36 Pileated Woodpeckers
    • and 126 Red-headed Woodpeckers
  36. Pearl River
    • a sighting occurred at Pearl River with 2 Ivory Billed Woodpeckers 
    • lead to Zeiss Expedition
  37. Common Birds in OK in freefall
    • Northern Bobwhite
    • Eastern Meadowlark
    • Loggerhead Shrike
    • Field Sparrow
    • Grasshopper Sparrow
  38. How do humans contribute to bird deaths?
    • hunting
    • landscape conversion
    • invasive species
    • pollution
    • building collisions
    • bycatch
  39. Window Collision Mortality Estimate
    • 1-10 individuals per building per year
    • schools, Pentagon, all count as 1 building making for a conservative study.
    • 100 million- 1 billion bird deaths
  40. Noble Research Center study by Tim O'Connell 
    • 4 year study
    • more deaths during fall migration
  41. What statistical test did Millican et all use?
  42. Millican et all conclusion
    social interactions can strongly influence foraging behavior
  43. Median estimation of bird mortality due to cat predation
    2.4 billion
  44. Scott Loss
    • conducted cat predation study 
    • incoming faculty member
  45. Rare birds in Oklahoma
    5 species

    • Whooping Crane (E)
    • Interior Least Tern (E)
    • Red-cockaded Woodpecker (E)
    • Black-capped Vireo (E)
    • Piping Plover (T)
  46. ODWC
    Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation
  47. Joint Ventures
    USFWS-lef initiatives to build cooperative endeavors among federal agencies, state agencies, NGOs, etc
  48. Anthropocene
    • proposed new geologic era we are currently in
    • characterested by human cultural dominance 
    • debated start date; unsure if it starts with agriculture or industrialization.
    • primarily proposed by Paul Crutzen
  49. Number of described species on Earth
    1.7 million
  50. Natural Selection
    • Primary mechanism for evolutionary chage
    • Depends on inherited variability of traits which may be more advantageous and allow individuals to produce more offspring.
  51. Selection 
    acts upon individuals
  52. Evolution
    acts on populations
  53. Gene flow
    exchange of genetic material within a population
  54. Phylogeny 
    evolutionary history of an organism
  55. systematics
    field of study that seeks to reconstruct phylogenies
  56. Phyletic Evolution
    change over time within a single lingeage (from one ancestor)
  57. Types of reproductive isolating mechanisms
    • Pre-mating: mating not even attempted
    • Post-mating: individuals capable of mating, but either have offspring that are sterile or not viable.
  58. Positive Assortative Mating
    courtship behaviors directed toward phenotypically similar individuals
  59. Negative Assortative Mating
    courtship behaviors directed toward phenotypically dissimilar individuals
  60. Carl Linnaeus
    • Binomial nomenclature
    • each species is given a name in Greek or Latin consisting of a capitalized name indicated the genus and a lower case name indicating the species
  61. Analogous structures
    • structures that develop though convergent evolution 
    • often used in phenetics
  62. Homologous Structures
    indicate a common evolutionary origin, regardless of how the structure appears
  63. Adaptive radiation
    process through which one taxon gives rise to many others that exploit availableniches.
  64. Polymorphism
    two or more discrete phenotypes in a sympatric population
  65. Microsatellites
    repeated sequences of 1–6 base pairs of DNA. High mutation rates result in lots ofpolymorphisms – in other words, there are lots of different alleles to examine in a microsatellite. Thesecan indicate genetic diversity within populations of the same species.
  66. Zink et al. conclusion
    dispersal is happening without human intervention.
Card Set
Ornithology Lecture 1
NREM/ZOOL 4464 with Dr. O'Connell