Erikson's stages of development

  1. Infancy (birth to 18 months)

    Trust vs. Mistrust

    Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
  2. Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)

    Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    Toilet Training

    • Children need to develop a sense of personal
    • control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads
    • to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
  3. Preschool (3 to 5 years)

    Initiative vs. Guilt

    • Children need to begin asserting control and power
    • over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of
    • purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience
    • disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
  4. School Age (6 to 11 years)

    Industry vs. Inferiority

    • Children need to cope with new social and academic
    • demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results
    • in feelings of inferiority.
  5. Adolescence (12 to 18 years)

    Identity vs. Role Confusion
    Social Relationships

    • Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal
    • identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while
    • failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
  6. Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)

    Intimacy vs. Isolation

    • Young adults need to form intimate, loving
    • relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships,
    • while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
  7. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)

    Generativity vs. Stagnation
    Work and Parenthood

    • Adults need to create or nurture things that will
    • outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change
    • that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and
    • accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the
    • world.
  8. Maturity(65 to death)

    Ego Integrity vs. Despair
    Reflection on Life

    • Older adults need to look back on life and feel a
    • sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom,
    • while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
Card Set
Erikson's stages of development
stages of development