Accy 111 Chapter 1

  1. Predictive Value
    Information is useful in predicting the future. The conceptual framework'squalitative characteristic of relevance
  2. Relevance
    Pertinent to the decision at hand. The FASB's conceptual framework's qualitative characteristics of accounting information.
  3. Timeliness
    information is available prior to the decision
  4. Distribution to owners
    Decreases in equity resulting from transfers to owners
  5. Feedback value
    information confirms expectations
  6. reliability
    along with relevance, a primary decision specific quality
  7. gain
    results in an asset is solf for more than its book value
  8. Faithful representation
    agreement between a measure and the phenomenon it purports to represent.      Alongwith relevance, a fundamental decision-specific quality. The FASB's conceptualframework's qualitative characteristics of accounting information
  9. comprehensive income
    the change in equity from nonowner transactions
  10. materiality
    concerns the relative size of an item and its effect on decisions ***Materiality - Information is material if it can have an effect on a decision made by a user. If an item is not material, GAAP need not be followed. For example, if a large corporation purchased a water cooler for one of its common areas for $120, the amount could be expensed rather than recorded as an asset even though the cooler will be useful for several years. Materiality is a judgment call. Materiality is concerned with both the dollar amount of an item and/or the nature of an item. It would probably be material if Microsoft received $1,000,000 in bribes from the Chinese for its technology. A $1,000,000 write-off of old equipment would probably be immaterial for Microsoft. . Constraints onqualitative characteristics of accounting information
  11. comparability
    important for making interfirm comparisons
  12. neutrality
    accounting information should not favor a particular group. The absense of bias. The conceptual framework's qualitative characteristic of faithful representation
  13. recognition
    the process of admitting information into financial statements
  14. consistency
    applying the same accounting practices over time. This would apply if a corporation changed its inventory valuation method.
  15. cost effectiveness
    requires consideration of the costs and value of the infomation. Considers the value of using information relative to cost of providing it.
  16. verifiablity
    implies consensus among different measurers or observers
  17. matching principle
    records expenses in the period the related revenue is recognized. cause-and-effectrelationship is implicit. Also includes depreciation over the useful life.
  18. Revenue recognition or the realization principle
    The process of includingdata in financial statements. Recording when products are billed and cash not receieved.
  19. periodicity
    the life of an enterprise can be divided into artificial periods. Also includes distributing annual reports to shareholders.
  20. historical cost principle
    the original transaction value upon aquisition. Asset and liabilitymeasurements should be based on the amount given or received in an exchangetransaction. Basis of measurement for fixed assets.
  21. realization principle
    ***Revenue ... criteria usually satisfied at point of sale. Revenue should be recognized only after the earnings process is virtually complete and there is reasonable certainty of collecting the asset to be received from the customer.
  22. matching priniciple
    Guide to expense recognition. The recognitio of expenses exemplifies the application of the matching principle is COGS.
  23. going concern assumption
    the entitiy will continue indefinitely. recognized as an assumption not a priniciple
  24. monetary unit assumption
    a common denominator is the dollar.      Ignoresthe possibility of inflation. Monetary units are not included on financial statements.
  25. economic entity assumption
    the enterprise is seperate from its owners and other entitities
  26. Completeness
    Information contains allinformation necessary for faithful representation.
  27. full disclosure principle
    **Recognized as a Principle. reporting all information that could affect decsions should be reported. requires a balance between relevence and cost effectiveness
  28. conservatism
    not a qualitative characteristic, but a practical justification for some accounting choices. A branch of accounting that requires a high degree  of verification before making a legal claim to any profit. Accounting  conservatism will recognize all probable losses as they are discovered and most  expenditures as they are incurred. Revenue will be deferred until  it is verified. Having strict revenue-recognition criteria is one of the  most common forms of accounting conservatism. It is a practical justification for choosing among alternative accounting methods. Recognizing expected lossesimmediately, but deferring expected gains
  29. source documents
    used to identitfy and process external transactions
  30. transaction analysis
    determine the dual effect on the accounting equation
  31. journal
    record of the dual effect of a transaction in debit or credit form
  32. posting
    transferring balances fromt he journal to the ledger
  33. unadjusted trial balance
    list of accounts and their balances after recording adjusting entries
  34. conformity value
    information confirms expectations
  35. understandibility
    users understand the information in the context of the decsion being made
  36. What is the SEC and how is it involved with accounting standard setting? 
    The Securities and Exchange Commission is a federal agency that has the authority to set accounting standards. However, the SEC has always delegated the task to a private sector body, such as the current FASB.
  37. What is the EITF and what is its purpose?
    The Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) acts as a filter for the FASB. It includes 15 individuals from public accounting and private industry along with a representative from the FASB and an SEC observer. The task force focuses on emerging issues and attempts to reach a consensus, speeding up the standard-setting process.      Providestimely responses to financial reporting issues.
  38. What are the key provisions of the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection (Sarbanes-Oxley) Act of 2002? 
    The act provides for the regulation of auditors and the types of services they furnish to clients, increases accountability of corporate executives, addresses conflicts of interest for auditors and securities analysts, and requires that companies document and assess their internal controls, that auditors express an opinion on management's assessment of internal controls, and requires auditors to express their own opinion on company internal controls.
  39. What provisions did the Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection (Sarbanes-Oxley) Act of 2002 make for performance of non-audit services by an audit firm?
    The law makes it unlawful for the auditors of public companies to perform a variety of non-audit services for audit clients. Prohibited services include bookkeeping, internal audit outsourcing, appraisal or valuation services, and various other consulting services. Other non-audit services, including tax services, require pre-approval by the audit committee of the company being audited.
  40. Financial AccountingStandards Board FASB
    Its EITF Issues areGAAP when entered in the Accounting Standards Codification. Sets accounting standardsin the U.S. The standard setting process includes (correct order) Research, discussion paper, exposure draft, accounting standards update.
  41. IASB
    Sets global accountingstandards
  42. Accounting PrinciplesBoard
    Itestablished GAAP before the FASB.
  43. GAAP
    Generally accepted accountingprinciples.
  44. AICPA
    It is the nationalorganization for CPAs in the U.S.
  45. SEC Securities and ExchangeCommission
    It has the authority to set U.S. accounting standards. Regulates the financial reporting for public companies. Issues accounting standards in the form of Financial Reporting Releases.
  46. Expenses
    Outflows of resources togenerate revenues
  47. Equity 
    Net assets
  48. . Distributions toowners
  49. Investments by owners 
    Transfers of resources inexchange for common and preferred stock
  50. . Liabilities 
    Claims of creditors againstthe assets of a business
  51. . Losses 
         Netoutflows from peripheral transactions
  52.  Assets 
         Probablefuture economic benefits controlled by an entity
  53.  Revenues 
    Increases in equity fromthe sale of goods and/or services. 
  54. Comprehensive income 
    All changes in equityexcept owner transactions. 
  55. PCAOB
         Establishesauditing standards in the U.S for public companies. 
  56. IMA
    Primary nationalorganization of accountants working in industry
  57.  IASC 
    Parent organization of theIASB
  58. APB 
  59.  FAF 
         TheFASB's parent organization. 
  60. In a recent annual report,Apple Computer reported the following in one of its disclosure notes:"Warranty Expense: The Company provides currently for the estimated costfor product warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized."This note exemplifies Apple's use of:
    The matching principle
  61. Net income
    revenues minus expenses
  62. What enhances the qualitative characteristics of accounting information?
    timeliness, comparability, verifiability
  63. The enhancing qualitativecharacteristic of understandability means that information should be understoodby: 
    Those who have a reasonableunderstanding of business and economic activities.
  64. Fundamental qualitative characteristics of accounting information are: 
    Faithful representation andrelevance.
  65. Enhancing qualitative characteristics of accounting information include:
    Comparability andtimeliness.
  66. Of the following, the mostimportant objective for financial reporting is to provide information usefulfor: 
    making decisions
  67. Revenue should not berecognized until:
    The earnings process iscomplete and collection is reasonably assured
  68. Net operating cash flow for a year
    subtract available cash from expenses paid (not accrued)
  69. Accounts receivable for balance sheet
    Subtract cash collected from customers from amounts billed to customers.
  70. Accrual income statement allocations
    What was billed! not actually what was paid!
  71. Liabilities at year ends include?
    • what is owed not what is accrued.
    • -5600 owed from year before
    • -18000 balance in expense a/c
    • = 23600 owed in liability account
Card Set
Accy 111 Chapter 1
Accy 111 CSUS