CH 5 Fats/Lipids CH 6 proteins

  1. what is the primary function of fat in the body?
    physical work/labor
  2. list secondary roles of fat in the body.
    • insulation against extreme temps.
    • protect against shock
    • provide structural material of cell membranes
    • cell signaling pathways
  3. what are the basic units of fat in the body?
    • fatty acids
    • glycerol
    • glycerides
  4. what percentage of our total Kcalories should come from fats?
  5. list the chemical elements in fats.
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
  6. list 3 major categories of lipids.
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • sterols
  7. what category of lipid accounts for 95% of all the fats?
  8. what makes up a triglyceride?
    3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol
  9. what are the 2 essential fatty acids?
    • linolenic
    • linoleig
  10. which essential fatty acid is an omega 3?
  11. which essential fatty acid is an omega 6?
  12. which essential fatty acid is needed for growth in children?
    linolenic (omega 3)
  13. what is a source of linolenic (omega 3)?
    cold water fish
  14. what is a major source of linoleig (omega 6)?
    plant oils
  15. what 2 oils are saturated fatty acids?
    • coconut
    • palm
  16. define hydrogenation
    when hydrogen is added to make a semi-solid.
  17. does hydrogenation help shelf life?
  18. phospholipids and sterol are found in only____% of our diets and in our bodies.
  19. what is an example of a phospholipid that is made form scratch in the body?
  20. list examples of sterols
    • vitamin D
    • sex hormones
    • cholesterol
  21. what is the recommended amount of cholesterol we should not exceed in our diets?
  22. list foods that contain large amounts of cholesterol
    • eggs
    • red meat
  23. what is the primary function of proteins in our diet?
    • build
    • maintain
    • repair body tissue
  24. what are the chemical elements of protein?
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  25. how many amino acids?
  26. how many essential amino acids?
  27. what percentage of Kcalories should come from protein per day?
  28. what is a polypeptide?
    many amino acids bonded together
  29. what is a oligo peptide?
    few amino acids bonded together
  30. what is the function of enzymes of protein?
    • act as catalyst for building/breaking down compounds in the body
    • they are never used up.
  31. what is the fluid balance function of protein?
    • to maintain volume and composition of body fluids
    • intracellular
    • intercellular
    • intravascular
  32. what is the function of protein of balance of acid and base do?
    • maintain the acid-base balance of the body fluids by acting as buffers.
    • acidosis- to acidic
    • alkalosis- to basic
  33. what does the function of antibodies of protein do?
    helps protect against disease
  34. what is the function of transportation or protein?
    transports molecules in and out of cells.
  35. what are 2 examples of transportation proteins?
    • lipoprotein- move fat through the body
    • hemoglobin- carries oxygen from lungs to cells
  36. what is a high quality proteins (complete protein)?
    protein containing all amino acids essential in human nutrition in adequate amounts.
  37. examples of high quality protein?
    • meats
    • animal sources
  38. define nitrogen balance.
    the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given period of time.
  39. define positive nitrogen balace
    • the body synthesizes more than it degrades.
    • protein is added.
  40. examples of positive nitrogen balance.
    • pregnancy
    • children
  41. define negative nitrogen balance.
    • the body degrades more than it synthesizes.
    • uses protein for energy.
  42. examples of negative nitrogen balance.
    • fasting
    • starving
  43. why are high protein diets not recommended?
    they can cause kidney problems due to the presence of excess nitrogen.
  44. the body will always take care of 1 priority, which is he brain and nervous system. explain what happens if carbs and fats are not available in the diet?
    the body can convert 50% of protein into glucose by splitting off the nitrogen the rest is excreted in urine.
Card Set
CH 5 Fats/Lipids CH 6 proteins