- Two contrasting styles dominated 18th century European art.
- This style embraced lavish, often lighthearted decorations with an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light.
- This style bacame associated with the aristocracies of the Old Regime.
- It became known as the style of Louis XV
- This style of art embodied a return to figurative and architectural models drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world.
- It was embraced by the French Revolution and Napoleon.
Frederick the Great
- He corresponded with the philosophes, gave Voltaire and other philosophes places at his court, and even wrote history, political tracts, literary criticism, and music.
- He embodied enlightened absolutism.
- "first servant of the state"
- Full religious toleration
- (1724-1804) German
- Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone (1793)
- Leading Jewish philosopher of the 18th century, was known as the "Jewish Socrates."
- He had been the chief model for Lessing's character Nathan the Wise.
- On Ecclesistical Power and Judaism
- He wished to advocate religious toleration while genuinely sustaining the traditional religious practices and faith.
- He set the example for a secularized version of Judaism, and Mendelsohn established the main outlines of an assimilationist position.
- Ethics, he so closely identified God and nature, or the spiritual and material worlds, that contemporaries condemned him.
- Theologic-Political Treatise.
- Letters on the English
- Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
- Inquiry into Human Nature, argued that no emipirical evidence supported the belief in divine miracles central to much of Christianity.
- The greatest miracle was that people believed in miracles.
Charles de Montesquieu
- He was a lawyer, a noble of the robe, and a member of a provincial parlement.
- He belonged to the Bordeaux Academy of Science
- The Persian Letters
- He visited England and deeply admired it
- In his most enduring work, Spirit of the Laws, exhibits the internal tensions of the Enlightenment.
- Inquiry into the Nature
- Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Four-stage theory
- He urged that the mercantile system be abolished.
- Usually regarded as the founder of laissez-faire economic thought and policy.
- One of the editors of the Encyclopedia
- Publication of the Encyclopedia spread enlightenment thought
- He was the son of Maria Theresa
- His projected reforms were more wide ranging
- He favored a policy of toleration.
Catherine the Great
- She carried out limited reforms on her own authority.
- Friends with aristocracy and clergy.
- She thought Russia needed great reforms to remain a great power.
- A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
- the immediate incentive for this essay was her opposition, unfavorable to women, that Rousseau, had inspired.
- Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences, he contended that civization & Enlightenment had corrupted human nature.
- Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, he blamed much of the evil in the world on the uneven distribution of property.