AP Euro Chapter 17 IDs

  1. Rococo Art
    • Two contrasting styles dominated 18th century European art.
    • This style embraced lavish, often lighthearted decorations with an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light.
    • This style bacame associated with the aristocracies of the Old Regime.
    • It became known as the style of Louis XV
  2. Neoclassical Art
    • This style of art embodied a return to figurative and architectural models drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world.
    • It was embraced by the French Revolution and Napoleon.
  3. Frederick the Great
    • He corresponded with the philosophes, gave Voltaire and other philosophes places at his court, and even wrote history, political tracts, literary criticism, and music.
    • He embodied enlightened absolutism. 
    • "first servant of the state"
    • Full religious toleration
  4. Immanuel Kant
    • (1724-1804) German
    • Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone (1793)
  5. Moses Mendelsohn
    • Leading Jewish philosopher of the 18th century, was known as the "Jewish Socrates." 
    • He had been the chief model for Lessing's character Nathan the Wise.
    • Jerusalem
    • On Ecclesistical Power and Judaism
    • He wished to advocate religious toleration while genuinely sustaining the traditional religious practices and faith.
  6. Baruch Spinoza
    • (1632-1677) 
    • He set the example for a secularized version of Judaism, and Mendelsohn established the main outlines of an assimilationist position. 
    • Ethics, he so closely identified God and nature, or the spiritual and material worlds, that contemporaries condemned him.
    • Theologic-Political Treatise.
  7. Francois-Marie Arouet
    • (1694-1778)
    • Letters on the English
    • Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
    • Candide
    • Voltaire
  8. David Hume
    • (1711-1776)
    • Inquiry into Human Nature, argued that no emipirical evidence supported the belief in divine miracles central to much of Christianity.
    • The greatest miracle was that people believed in miracles. 
  9. Charles de Montesquieu
    • (1689-1755)
    • He was a lawyer, a noble of the robe, and a member of a provincial parlement.
    • He belonged to the Bordeaux Academy of Science
    • The Persian Letters
    • He visited England and deeply admired it
    • In his most enduring work, Spirit of the Laws, exhibits the internal tensions of the Enlightenment.
  10. Adam Smith
    • (1723-1790)
    • Inquiry into the Nature 
    • Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Four-stage theory
    • He urged that the mercantile system be abolished.
    • Usually regarded as the founder of laissez-faire economic thought and policy.
  11. Denis Diderot
    • One of the editors of the Encyclopedia
    • Publication of the Encyclopedia spread enlightenment thought
  12. Joseph II
    • (r.1765-1790)
    • He was the son of Maria Theresa
    • Determined
    • His projected reforms were more wide ranging 
    • He favored a policy of toleration.
  13. Catherine the Great
    • (r.1762-1796)
    • She carried out limited reforms on her own authority. 
    • Friends with aristocracy and clergy.
    • She thought Russia needed great reforms to remain a great power. 
  14. Mary Wollstonecraft
    • (1759-1797)
    • A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
    • the immediate incentive for this essay was her opposition, unfavorable to women, that Rousseau, had inspired.
  15. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • (1712-1778)
    • Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences, he contended that civization & Enlightenment had corrupted human nature.
    • Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, he blamed much of the evil in the world on the uneven distribution of property.
Card Set
AP Euro Chapter 17 IDs