The Consumer Revolution
- 18th century Great Britain
- Expanded the demand for goods that could be efficiently supplied
- Customers were tempted by shop windows
- Newspapers were thriving
- Britain was also the single largest free-trade area in Europe.
The Ancien Regime
- Before 1789 France
- This term has come to be applied generally to the life and institutions of pre-revolutionary Europe.
- Economically, low food supply, predominance of agriculture, slow transport, low level of iron production, etc.
- Men and Women living in this time saw themselves as individuals than of distict corporate bodies that possessed certain priveleges or rights.
The Agricultural Revolution
- Old Regime, Western Europe
- The rising grain prices gave landlords an opportunity to improve their incomes and lifestyle.
- To achieve those ends, landlords in Western Europe began a series of innovations in farm production that became known as this.
- Enclosures replaced the open-field method.
The Industrial Revolution
- Second half of 18th Century Europe
- That achievement of sustained economic growth is known as this.
- The most familiar side of this was the invention of new machinery, establishment of factories, and the creation of a new kind of workforce.
- New methods of textile production
Charles "Turnip" Townsend
- (1674-1738) Dutch
- He learned from the Dutch how to cultivate sandy soil with fertilizers.
- He also instituted crop rotation, using wheat, turnips, barley, and clover.
- Increased fodder.
- (1674-1741) England
- English landlords provided the most striking examples of 18th century agricultural improvement.
- Iron plows and drilling seeds.
The Family Economy
- The household was the basic unit of production and consumption.
- Depending on their ages and skills, everyone in the house hold worked.
- All goods and income produced went to the benefit of the household.
The Domestic System
- 18th century Britain
- Agents of urban textile merchants took wool or other unfinished fibers to the homes of peasants who spun it into thread.
- Was then picked up and sold.
The Water Frame
- 1769 Great Britain
- Richard Arkwright's invention
- Water-powered and designed to permit the production of a purely cotton fabric.
The Watt Steam Engine
- 1769 Great Britain
- James Watt perfected this.
- This increased and regularized the available energy, but also made possible the combination of urbanization and industrialization.
- Driven by burning coal.
- First used for pumping water from mines.
The Spinning Jenny
- 1765 Great Britain
- Helped increase the productivity of weavers, manufacturers and merchants offered prizes for the invention of a machine.
- Initially this machine allowed more spindles of thread to be spun.
The Flying Shuttle
- 1733 Great Britain
- Helped the productivity of weavers.